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UC01202 Kemahiran Berunding

Pensyarah: Prof. Madya Dr. Andreas Totu




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Negotiation Skill
Negotiation Skill

Distributive Negotiation 1. little cooperation

Integrative Negotiation 1. strong cooperation

2. mutual gain 3. win-win

2. what I gain is what you lose

3. win-lose

Characteristics of Integrative Negotiation

It focus on commonalities rater than differences It attempt to address needs and interest, not positions It commit to meeting the needs of all involved parties Exchange information and ideas Invent options for mutual gain Use objective criteria for standard of performance

4 Major Steps in the IN

Identify and define the problem Understand the problem and bring interests and needs to the surface Generate alternative solution to the problems Evaluate those alternatives and select among them

Alternative Solution : Integrative Negotiation

Expand the Pie Logroll Use Nonspecific Compensation Cut the Costs for Compliance The Bridge Solution

1. Expand the Pie

Membuatkan kek menjadi besar, menambahkan sumber Change the frame of the negotiation from win-lose game to win-win scenario where both sides can benefit more by working together on mutual benefits.(zero-sum to variable-sum) When one person gets more of the pie it is clear that the other person gets less. If both parties work together to get a bigger pie, they both have more with the same percentage division.

Expand the Pie

How can both parties get what they are demanding? Is there a resource shortage? How can resources be expanded to meet the demands of both sides? Example: Husband & wife who are negotiating about holidays and the ability to take time off work reframe the situation as getting away together and end up with a decision that when one goes away on business the other will go along too.

2. Logroll
Saling membantu Negotiation exchange that involves making negotiation concessions or the trading-off of issues so as to maximise on each sides' value. So you will offer the other side something that they value more than you, in exchange for gaining something from them that you value more than they do.

What issues are of higher and lower priority to me? What issues are of higher and lower priority to the other? What are things that would be inexpensive for me to give and valuable for the other to get that might be used in logrolling? Example : The salesman seems interested in his client's watch, and he is willing to exchange his laptop with the client, which the laptop worth nothing to him, but the watch, while the client willing to exchange too as he thinks salesmans laptop are far more valuable than his watch.

3. Use Non-specific Compensation

Menggunakan bentuk pampasan yang lain (material/benda) One party receives its objectives, while the other party is paid off or compensated for yielding or accommodating. The first party, for example, might receive the desired immediate outcome white the second or other party will receive a benefit of similar value on later on What are the other partys goals and values?

Use Non-specific Compensation

What could I do for the other side that would make them happy and have them allow me to get my way on the key issue? What are things that would be inexpensive for me to give and valuable for the other to get that might be used as nonspecific compensation? Example : Supervisor buying free lunch for the customers as the compensation which helps to ease the feelings of the customers where they mad at the flight delayed problem.

4. Cut the Costs for Compliance

Mengurangkan kos pematuhan For a party in a conflict, a solution may involve costs (economic, cuts, suffering, harm such as loss of face or reputation). By mutual agreement, a settlement might be found whereby one party achieves his/her objectives and the other party gains reduced costs.

Cut the Costs for Compliance

What risks and costs does my proposal create for the other?

What can I do to minimize the others risks and costs so that they would be more willing to go along? Example : The antique seller trying to cut down the price of the antique as the buyers cant afford this amount, $10,000 dollars, it is too expensive. In the end, they both agreed on the price after a consideration on his/her negotiators needs.

5. The Bridge Solution

Penyelesaian Jambatan This involve a situation where by parties invent new options that meet all their respective needs. Bridging often requires fundamental reformulation of the problems in conflict. What are the others real underlying needs? What are my own real underlying needs?

The Bridge Solution

What are the higher and lower priorities for each of us in our underlying needs? Can we invent a solution that meets both sides relative priorities and their underlying needs? Example : The pregnant lady needs help, she needs to deliver her baby, people really wants to help her, but they have no idea, and the steward cannot touched her as it is forbidden, and the passenger had no knowledge in this thing, came out with a solution, where guys turns around and let the girls do the delivery.