Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

1.5K views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- The Soar Cognitive Architecture-The MIT Press (2012) - John E. Laird
- The Laws of Form Controversy
- The Improbability of Communication by Niklas Luhmann
- Laws of Form: Why Spencer-Brown is missing the point
- Temporalization of Complexity - Niklas Luhmann (1978)
- mastersthesissigridshaugen.pdf
- Laws of Form: An Exploration in Mathematics and Foundations [Rough Draft] (Kauffman)
- John C. Lilly and E.J. Gold - Tanks for the Memories - Float at Ion Tank Talks v0.9
- Architecture of Cognition
- StefanArteni_TheFormOfTheForm
- How Consciousness Creates Reality
- Baecker - 2008 - Form and Forms of Communication(3)
- On ‘Inner Touch’ and the Moving Body
- Smullyan - To Mock a Mockingbird
- Cognitive Architecture Neidich Article
- Louis H. Kauffman- Laws of Form and the Logic of Non-Duality
- Louis H. Kauffman- Formal Systems: EigenForm
- Algebra Serge Lang
- Cause Condition Concession Contrast
- Cognitive Architecture Neidich Article

You are on page 1of 43

Foundations of Mathematics from 1960 onwards. He is the part-

editor of material for Russell’s Autobiography.

• He worked with Ludwig Wittgenstein in the Foundations of

Philosophy in 1950-51.

• He worked with J D Boyd in experiments in the special senses, and

with D T Harris in the medical uses of hypnosis. With the Royal

Navy, he undertook successful trials of hypnosis for dentistry and

the retraining of wounded personnel. Laurelled chess master and

chemist, race car driver (member of the Institute of Advanced

Motorists since 1962), and expert pilot with the Royal Air-

force.Published in statistics, probability, psychical research, logic,

and poetry. Worked with Winston Churchill’s advisor Lord Cherwell

on Goldbach’sConjecture and other advanced mathematical

problems from 1954 until his death in 1957. He is custodian or

Lord Cherwell’s unpublished mathematical papers and

correspondence.

• Chief Logic Designer for MullardEquipment Ltd., 1959-61,

consultant from 61 on. Advisor to British Rail, 1963-64. Inventor of

the first modular lift and elevator control units, British Patent

George Spencer-Brown’s Vita

• Senior Lecturer in Formal Mathematics with the University of London Department of

Extramural Studies, 1963-1968. Work in military Communications for U K Government

1965-66. Manager, Development Division International Publishing Corporation Ltd,

1966-68. Worked in Computer Science and Number Theory with J C P Miller 1963

onwards. In collaboration with him and with D J Spencer-Brown discovered new

primality tests and factoring methods. Member of the Department of Pure

Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics in the University of Cambridge since 1969.

Life Fellow of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.

• Visiting Professor of Mathematics in the University of Western Australia 1976. Visiting

Professor, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, 1977. Consultant to

Xerox Palo Alto Research Corporation 1977-78. Stanford and Palo Alto lectures The

Four-color Map Theorem as a Problem in Formal Quaternions 1977-78. Visiting

Professor of Pure Mathematics in the Department of Computer Science, University of

Maryland, 1980-81. Seconded to Federal Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D C,

as adviser in Military Communications. Contributions include new discoveries in

optics, and in coding and code-breaking.

• Washington lectures 1980-81: What is Mathematics, Formal Arithmetics of the Second

Order, and Cast and Formation Properties of Maps.

• Practiced full-time as a professional psychotherapist 1968-69. Successfully

implemented hypnosis and sleep-learning techniques to enhance performance in

sporting and other competitive activities. Specialist in the training and education of

gifted and super-intelligent children. Continues to practice world-wide on a part-time

basis.

• Publications: Probability and Scientific Inference, London 1957, 1058; Laws of Form,

London 1969, 1971, New York 1972, 1973, 1977, 1979 (writing as G Spencer-Brown);

Twenty-Three Degrees of Paradise (verse), Cambridge, 1970; Only Two Can Play This

Game(a comparison of western and eastern modes of thought and methods in the

arts, philosophy, religion, and the sciences), Cambridge 1971, New York 1972, 1973,

1974 (writing as James Keys).

From Laws of Form

EXCERPTS

A NOTE ON THE MATHEMATICAL

APPROACH

First Paragraph

The theme of this book is that a universe comes

into being when a space is severed or taken apart.

The skin of a living organism cuts off an outside from

an inside. So does the circumference of a circle in a

plane. By tracing the way we represent such a

severance, we can begin to reconstruct, with an

accuracy and coverage that appear almost uncanny,

the basic forms underlying linguistic, mathematical,

physical, and biological science, and can being to see

how the familiar laws of our own experience follow

inexorably from the original act of severance. The act

is itself already remembered, even if unconsciously, as

our first attempt to distinguish different things in a

world where, in the first place, the boundaries can be

drawn anywhere we please. At this stage the universe

NOTE: Paragraph 2

Although all forms, and thus all

universes, are possible, and any

particular form is mutable, it

becomes evident that the laws

relating such forms are the same in

any universe. It is this sameness,

the idea that we can find a reality

independent of how the universe

actually appears, that lends such

fascination to the study of

NOTE: Paragraph 2

That mathematics, in common with

other art forms, can lead us beyond

ordinary existence, and can show us

something of the structure in which

all creation hangs together , is no

new idea. But mathematical texts

generally begin the story somewhere

in the middle, leaving the reader to

pick up the threads as best he can.

Here the story is traced from the

1

THE FORM

distinction and the idea of indication,

and that we cannot make an

indication without drawing a

distinction. We take, therefore, the

form of distinction for the form.

Definition

arranging a boundary with separate sides so

that a point on one side cannot reach the other

side without crossing the boundary. For

example, in a plane space a circle draws a

distinction.

Once a distinction is drawn, the spaces,

states, or contents on each side of the

boundary, being distinct, can be indicated.

There can be no distinction without

motive, and there can be no motive unless

contents are seen to differ in value.

If a content is of value, a name can be

taken to indicate this value.

Thus the calling of the name can be

Axiom 1. The law of

calling

The value of a call made again is

the value of the call.

and then is called again, the value

indicated by the two calls taken

together is the value indicated by one

of them.

That is to say, for any name, to

recall is to call.

Equally, if the content is of value, a

motive or an intention or instruction to

Axiom 2. The law of

crossing

The value of a crossing made again

is not the value of the crossing.

cross a boundary and then it is

intended to cross it again, the value

indicated by the two intentions taken

together is the value indicated by none

of them.

recross is not to cross.

FORMS TAKEN OUT OF THE FORM

2

Construction

Draw a distinction.

Content

Call the space in which it is drawn the space severed or cloven by the

distinction.

Call the parts of the spaces shaped by the severance or cleft the sides

of the distinction or, alternatively, the spaces, states, or contents distinguished

by the distinction.

Intent

Let any mark, token, or sign be taken in any way with or with regard to

the distinction as a signal.

Call the use of any signal its intent.

Knowledge

distinction be marked with a mark

of distinction.

mark.

Form

distinction, together with the entire content

of the space, the form of the distinction.

Call the form of the first distinction the

form.

Name

form.

Let the mark of distinction be copied

out of the form into such another form.

Call any such copy of the mark a token

of the mark.

Let any token of the mark be called as

Arrangement

Call the form of a number of tokens considered with regard to one another

(that is to say, considered in the same form) an arrangement.

Expression

Value

Equivalence

Let a sign

Now, by axiom 1,

Instruction

the unmarked state.

Let each token of the mark be seen to

cleave the space into which it is copied. That is

to say, let each token be a distinction in its own

form.

Call the concave side of a taken its inside.

Let any token be intended as an

instruction to cross the boundary of the first

distinction.

Let the crossing be from the state

indicated on the inside of the token.

Let the crossing be to the state indicated

by the token.

Let a space with no token indicate the

unmarked state.

Now, by axiom 2,

The Primary Arithmetic (Ch.

4)

George Spencer-Brown continues in successive chapters

of Laws of Form to use the notion of distinction and form

developed in chapters 1 and 2 given in these excerpts, to

develop the primitive notion of calculation needed to

develop the primary arithmetic, which is non-numerical,

called the calculus of indications, dealing with the two

initials of number (Axiom 1: the law of calling; condensation

and confirmation) and order (Axiom 2: the law of crossing;

cancellation and confirmation*).

direct consequences of these initials the primary

arithmetic.”

confirmation are complimentary and inverse operations

with regard to the direction of the law of calling, as

The Primary Algebra (Ch. 6)

At the beginning of the fourth chapter “The Primary

Arithmetic”, after an image of the initials of the calculus of

indications, he explains that the general patterns distinguished

therein are called Theorems. After a number of such theorems

and some more canons are given expression in that chapter, we

are able to see the generalities of it such that we can take tokens

of variable form to indicate expressions in the primary arithmetic,

which leads to a new calculus, taken out of the first, called the

primary algebra, in the fifth chapter “A Calculus Taken Out of the

Calculus”. Tokens of constant form are in the Laws of Form

distinctions, which indicate the first distinction.

beginning of the sixth chapter, “The Primary Algebra”. They are

position and transposition. And just as in the Primary Arithmetic,

there is a beautiful economy of operations pertaining to the

initials: Position means “take out” one way, and “put in” the

other. Transposition means collect and distribute, again, in

reverse directions. He then states,

Theorems of the Second

Order (Ch. 7)

“The key is to see that the

crossed part of the expression at

A number of Theorems (10-15) every even depth is identical with

are developed, building on pervious the whole expression, which can

forms (definition, axioms, canons, thus be regarded as re-entering its

arithmetic initials, algebraic initials, own inner space at any even

theorems, rules, consequences, and depth.”

expressions of completeness).

(Ch. 8) Imaginary state, involving an infinite

expression and the fact of the ninth

Here he introduces Theorem Canon, the Rule of Demonstration (A

16, “The bridge”, and the eighth demonstration rests in a finite

Canon, “Principle of transmission”. number of steps), it seems to me,

although he makes no explicit

reference to that Canon under the

Equations of the Second introduction of the Imaginary

Degree (Ch. 11) state, it is implied by the order of

the work.

(i.e., of the form into itself). Re- and has a graphic of a circle and a

entry is a very popular notion in the shaded region outside the circle to

interpretation of Laws of Form. indicate a higher-dimensional

Here is the explanation of Re-entry: (second-degree) frame of reference

(indicationalspace).

Time

Since we do not wish, if we can avoid it, to leave the form, the

state we envisage is not in space, but in time. (It being possible to

enter a state of time without leaving the state of space in which

one is already lodged.

Frequency

If we consider the speed at which the representation of value

travels through the space of the expression to be constant, then

the frequency of its oscillation is determined by the length of the

tunnel. Alternatively, if we consider this length to be constant, the

frequency of the oscillation is determined by the speed of its

transmission through space.

Velocity

We see that once we give the transmission of an indication of

value a speed, we must also give it a direction, so that it becomes

a velocity. For if we did not, there would be nothing to stop the

propagation proceeding as represented to t4 (say) and then

continuing towards the representation shown in t3 in stead of that

shown in t5.

Function

We shall call an expression containing a variable v

alternatively a function of v. We thus see expressions of value or

functions of variables, according to from which point of view we

regard them.

Oscillator function

RELEVANCE TO THIS CLASS???

thereof one must remain silent

that the mathematician, descriptively speaking, says nothing. The same may

be said of the composer, who, if he were to attempt a description (i.e., a

limitation), of the set of ecstasies apparent through (i.e., unlimited by) his

composition, would fail miserably and necessarily. But neither the composer

nor the mathematician must , for this reason, be silent.

suggests Russell’s suggested loophole out of the hierarchy of language, is the

injunctive faculty of language (from the primal injunction of construction: Draw

a distinction.)

“We see now that the first distinction, the mark, and the observer are

not only inter-changable, but, in the form, identical.”

stating that the thirdnessis essential. He calls it triplicity. In his book Only Two

Can Play This Game, he explains that these three are none other than the Holy

Trinity! They are:

In Appendix 2, “The calculus interpreted for

logic”, he says:

become redundant, since both they and

their derivations are easily constructed

from, or tested by reduction to, a single

cross. For example, everything in pp 98-126

or Principia mathematica can be rewritten

without formal loss in one symbol

calculation and interpretation are implicitly

understood, as indeed they are in Principa.

Although some 1500 symbols to a page, this

represents a reduction of the mathematical

noise-level by a factor of more than 40000.

George Spencer-Brown

01144-1985-844-855

Dr. John Cunningham Lilly

(1915-2001)

George Spencer-Brown

and Second-Order

Cybernetics

Dr. Heinz von Foerster

(1911-2002)

Louis Kauffman

William Bricken

Humberto Maturana

Francisco Varela

Randall Wittaker

Niklas Luhmann

Alan Watts

Francis Heylighen

Thomas McFarlane, CIIS

Dirk Baecker

Wittgenstein and Russell

Laws of Form

and practiced, requires years of contemplation. Not

activity. Not reasoning. Not calculating. Not busy

behavior of any kind. Not reading. Not talking. Not

making an effort. Not thinking. Simply bearing in

mind what it is one needs to know. And yet those with

the courage to tread this path to real discovery are not

only offered practically no guidance on how to do so,

they are actively discouraged and have to set about it

in secret, pretending meanwhile to be diligently

engaged in the frantic diversions and to conform with

the deadening personal opinions which are being

continually thrust upon them."

-G. Spencer Brown, from Laws of Form

- The Soar Cognitive Architecture-The MIT Press (2012) - John E. LairdUploaded byMicaMontenegro
- The Laws of Form ControversyUploaded byRandolph Dible
- The Improbability of Communication by Niklas LuhmannUploaded byNico Bencherki
- Laws of Form: Why Spencer-Brown is missing the pointUploaded byClaus Janew
- Temporalization of Complexity - Niklas Luhmann (1978)Uploaded byTyss Morgan
- mastersthesissigridshaugen.pdfUploaded byUwe Heim
- Laws of Form: An Exploration in Mathematics and Foundations [Rough Draft] (Kauffman)Uploaded bytelecult
- John C. Lilly and E.J. Gold - Tanks for the Memories - Float at Ion Tank Talks v0.9Uploaded bymauricio
- Architecture of CognitionUploaded byMumbaba
- StefanArteni_TheFormOfTheFormUploaded bystefan arteni
- How Consciousness Creates RealityUploaded byClaus Janew
- Baecker - 2008 - Form and Forms of Communication(3)Uploaded byFel Epilef
- On ‘Inner Touch’ and the Moving BodyUploaded bymarcopolomint
- Smullyan - To Mock a MockingbirdUploaded byenderz
- Cognitive Architecture Neidich ArticleUploaded byRobert Stasinski
- Louis H. Kauffman- Laws of Form and the Logic of Non-DualityUploaded byJupwe
- Louis H. Kauffman- Formal Systems: EigenFormUploaded byJupwe
- Algebra Serge LangUploaded bykaveh1980
- Cause Condition Concession ContrastUploaded byTanya Markelova
- Cognitive Architecture Neidich ArticleUploaded byTheron Burger
- Laws Of FormUploaded byPeter Farkas
- Luhmann Niklas Art as Social SystemUploaded byArthur Bueno
- Toward a Cognitive Semantics Volume 2 Typology and Process in Concept Structuring Language Speech and CommunicationUploaded byJean-Philippe BABU
- G. Spencer Brown - Laws_of_FormUploaded byGerardo Damian
- Two can play that game . . .Uploaded byexeter555
- Encoding ArchitectureUploaded byMohammed Younus AL-Bjari
- Niklas Luhmann - Theories of DistinctionUploaded byemmanuelruck
- Applied metacognition.pdfUploaded byNawel Zoghlami
- Helena de Preester Moving Imagination Explorations of Gesture and Inner MovementUploaded byVero Cohen
- LUHMANN, Niklas - Observing Re-EntriesUploaded byMatheus Figueiredo Souza

- Meaning in Grammatology and SemiologyUploaded byRandolph Dible
- Modulation to a New Key in the Syntax of TimeUploaded byRandolph Dible
- Woman, an Umbilical Unbiblical GenesisUploaded byRandolph Dible
- The Aesthetic Power Behind Nietzsche's MetaphysicsUploaded byRandolph Dible
- The Philosophy of Mysticism 03-21-2010Uploaded byRandolph Dible
- The Holy DibleUploaded byRandolph Dible
- The Oversight of DarknessUploaded byRandolph Dible
- General ExtensionUploaded byRandolph Dible
- Emerson's CirclesUploaded byRandolph Dible
- On Paul Ricoeurʼs Poetics of the WillUploaded byRandolph Dible
- Mar Appendix Laws of Form Existential GraphsUploaded byRandolph Dible
- Transcendence in the Age of Hermeneutical Reason: On Paul Ricoeur's Poetics of the WillUploaded byRandolph Dible
- On Paul Ricoeur's Poetics of the WillUploaded byRandolph Dible
- KsetraksetrajnayogahUploaded byRandolph Dible
- Draft: On Paul Ricoeur's Poetics of the WillUploaded byRandolph Dible
- Isvara Gita Sub CommentaryUploaded byRandolph Dible
- What isUploaded byRandolph Dible
- YogahaUploaded byRandolph Dible
- The Mom and Momjit ParadigmUploaded byRandolph Dible
- The Philosophy of Mysticism: The Perennialism and Constructivism DialecticUploaded byRandolph Dible
- Transitions in the American WestUploaded byRandolph Dible
- Transgressing the BoundariesUploaded byRandolph Dible
- Akhanda Vakya SphotaUploaded byRandolph Dible
- Schopenhauer and KantUploaded byRandolph Dible
- Schopenhauer PaperUploaded byRandolph Dible
- Descartes and SpinozaUploaded byRandolph Dible
- The Over SoulUploaded byRandolph Dible

- lessonstudy1planUploaded byapi-283548263
- The Role of Accounting in National DevelopmentUploaded byPushpa Barua
- Kssr Year 1 Assessment ChecklistUploaded by유웃
- Standard Resume TemplateUploaded byyerra
- SULHOG-EV Yolanda Reconstruction PlanUploaded byMay Catherine Agang
- alfonso-resume-072018Uploaded byapi-57569884
- Student cover noteUploaded byJoji Varghese
- dan hurd resumeUploaded byapi-337404889
- Report Writing Format-general FormatUploaded byritikaritika
- CFPS Application form -Uploaded bydevilrakz
- TC576Uploaded bygalileaaddison
- Such activities are generally voluntary (as opposed to mandatory), sUploaded bysdfsdfas
- keyquickly.pdfUploaded byjaime
- Syllabus menstraUploaded byHika Ach
- the new york times and the armenian genocideUploaded byapi-318196744
- Rock Cycle Short EssayUploaded byJay-Mar
- Zhang PengUploaded byJosi Diningrum
- Elementary-Statistics-A-Step-By-Step-Approach-7th-Edition-Bluman-Test-Bank.pdfUploaded bya585855093
- Prin.Mktg.MAR1011-4571-Syllabus-FALL-2017-2018-8 WKUploaded byCaleb Brening
- Module 2Uploaded byFrandy Karundeng
- Lesson Plan-osmosisUploaded byZm Daza
- Rubrics Part 4 AnalysisUploaded byReina
- Environmental ethicsUploaded byIwan Saputra
- CFBC HRM Course OutlineUploaded byShina Bolus
- CD 06_Add Math T5Uploaded byLisma Salem
- Appropriate English Verb Tense-Aspect Choices.pdfUploaded byheber82
- Actual Exam Reading 2017 - 8 (the Innovation of Grocery Stores)Uploaded byGeo
- ems580 geo lesson plan dcilianoUploaded byapi-431336496
- A Dictionary of Key Social Science ResearchUploaded byJuan Camilo Puentes
- Radio Interview SkillsUploaded byMiriam Kivlehan

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.