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MCT 4333

Power Electronics

Department of Mechatronics Engineering IIUM

Reference Books
Required Daniel W. Hart (2011)Power electronics McGraw-hill international Edition. Rashid M. H., (2004), Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices, and Applications, 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall. Recommended Agrawal J. P., (2001), Power Electronics System: Theory and Design, Prentice-Hall. Hart D. W., (1997), Introduction to Power Electronics, Prentice-Hall. Mohan N., Undeland T. M., and Robbins W. P., (2003), Power Electronics: Converters, Applications, and Design, John Wiley and Sons.
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Method of Evaluation
Quizzes Assigment/ Project Midterm Examination Final Exam Total 15 % 20 % 25 % 40 %

100 %

Course Outline:
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Contents
Definition of power electronics, Power semiconductor devices, Control characteristics of power semiconductor devices, Power losses in switches, Types of power electronics circuits. Applications of power electronics.

Power Electronics
Control Analog/ Digital

Electronics Device/Circuit

Power equipment static/rotating

Power Electronics
Power electronics involves the study of electronic circuits intended to control the flow and conversion of electric power. Thus power electronics combine power, electronics and control. The applications of solid-state and linear devices for the control and conversion of electric power.
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Power Electronics System


Consists of an input source and a load. One or more converters for power conversion. Power semiconductor devices, which are used as switches to perform the power conversion. A gating circuit to generate the gate drive signals for the switching devices. A feedback control circuit implemented either in analog and/or digital electronics. One or more static-switches acting as a circuit breaker.
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Power Electronics System


Static Applications: No rotating or moving mechanical components. Examples: DC Power supply, Uninterruptible power supply, Power generation and transmission (HVDC), Electroplating, Welding, Heating, Cooling, Electronic ballast. Drive Applications: for driving moving or rotating equipment such as motors. Examples: Electric trains, Electric vehicles, Air-conditioning system, Pumps, Compressor, Conveyer Belt (Factory automation).

Importance of PES
Increasing applications of Power Electronic Equipment in Power Systems Availability of high power semiconductor devices Decentralized renewable Control Center energy generation sources Central Power Solar Power Plants Station CHP House Increased power transfer with existing transmission Combined Heat and Power Wind Power Plants Plant (CHP) Village system Factory Commercial Commercial Building Building Effective control of power House Apartment Building flow needed in a Micro-Turbine Hospital Fuel Cell deregulated environment Commercial Smart House Building Performance Norms for Power quality Building
Future Power System
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Power Semiconductor Devices


Power devices are the key elements of a power converter. The commonly used devices are: (1) Power Diode (2) Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR) or Thyristor (3) Gate Turn-off Thyristor (GTO) (4) Power Bipolar Junction Transistor (Power BJT) (5) Power Metal-Oxide Field-Effect Transistor (Power MOSFET) (6) Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) (7) Mos-Controlled Thyristor (MCT)
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Power semiconductor operating regions voltage vs frequency;

current vs frequency.

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Power Electronic Applications


Distributed generation (DG)
Renewable resources (wind and photovoltaic) Fuel cells and micro-turbines Storage: batteries, super-conducting magnetic energy storage,

Power electronics loads: Adjustable speed drives Power quality solutions


Dual feeders Uninterruptible power supplies Dynamic voltage restorers

Transmission and distribution (T&D)

High voltage dc (HVDC) and medium voltage dc Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS): Shunt and Series compensation, and the unified power flow controller

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Function of Power Electronics in Utility Applications

Converter Source Controller Load

Enabling technology providing interface between two (ac/dc) electrical systems


Interconnection of two asynchronous ac systems dc to ac conversion is required to connect fuel cells or photovoltaic to the utility grid
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Role of Power Electronics in Important Utility Applications


Distributed Generation (DG) Applications Power electronic interface depends on the source characteristics
Wound rotor Induction Generator

Isolated DC-DC Converter

PWM Converter

AC
Wind Turbine

DC DC AC
Grid-side Converter

Generator-side Converter

Max. Powerpoint Tracker

Utility 1f

Wind Power Generation with Doubly Fed Induction Motors

Photo-voltaics Interface

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Role of Power Electronics in Important Utility Applications


Power Electronic Loads: Adjustable Speed Drives

Utility

Switch-mode Converter Motor

Rectifier

Controller

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Role of Power Electronics in Important Utility Applications


Power Quality Solutions for
voltage distortion unbalances voltage sags and swells power outages
Power Electronic Interface Load

Dynamic Voltage Restorers (DVR)

Feeder 1

Rectifier
Load Feeder 2

Inverter Energy Storage

Filter

Critical Load

Dual Feeders
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Uninterruptible Power Supplies

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Role of Power Electronics in Important Utility Applications


Transmission and Distribution: DC Transmission
most flexible solution for connection of two ac systems

AC1

AC2

AC1

AC2

HVDC

MVDC

Ideal PE System
To convert electrical energy from one form to another, i.e. from the source to load with:
highest efficiency, highest availability highest reliability lowest cost, smallest size least weight.

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Power Semiconductor Devices


Diode

BJT

MOSFET

Thyristor

IGBT

Inductor GTO Capacitor Transformer

2200gF 250 V 85 J

104/250V

102

Ferrite core

Powerdered ion core

Electrolytic capacitor

Metalized polypoyester capacitor

Ceramic capacitor
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Inductors and Capacitors in PE


Inductor: V = L di/dt The current in an inductor cannot change instantaneously! Capacitor: i = C dV/dt The voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously! These passive components are fundamental to the operation of all power electronics.

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Control Characteristics
Diode Uncontrolled turn on and off
+ VS

VO

+
VS

VS

VO

VO

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Control Characteristics
Thyristors SCR Controlled turn on and uncontrolled turn off

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Control Characteristics
Thyristors
+ + VS

VS

VO
Vg

Once it is in conduction mode, it cannot be turned off by gate signal

VO

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Control Characteristics
GTO, BJT, MOSFET, SITH, IGBT, SIT, MCT Controlled turn on and off.
VS

+ V g

Vg

VS

VO VO

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Control Characteristics
BJT, MOSFET, IGBT, SIT Continuous gate signal requirement
+ VS VB + + VO VB VS

+
VS
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+ VO VO
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VGS

Other Characteristics
Bidirectional current capability: TRIAC, RCT Unidirectional current capability: SCR, BJT, MOSFET, etc
See table 1.3 and Figure1.9 of the text book for more information. Self Study: Characteristics of Ideal switches

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The Practical Switch


1. Limited power handling capabilities, limited conduction current in the on-state, and limited blocking voltage in the offstate. 2. Limited switching speed caused by the finite turn-on and turnoff times. This limits the maximum operating frequency of the device. 3. Finite on-state and off-state resistances, that is, forward voltage drop exists when in the on-state, and reverse current flow (leakage) exists when in the off-state. 4. Because of characteristics 2 and 3, the practical switch experiences power losses in the on- and off-states (known as conduction loss), and during switching transitions (known as switching loss).

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Losses in Power Electronics


In semiconductor components: Switching losses Conduction losses In passive components (C & L): Effective series resistance

Typical efficiencies are in the range of 90-99% for each conversion stage, depending on the exact converter topology.
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Power switch losses


Why it is important to consider losses of power switches? to ensure that the system operates reliably under prescribed ambient conditions, so that heat removal mechanism (e.g. heat sink, radiators, coolant) can be specified. Losses in switches affects the system efficiency Heat sinks and other heat removal systems are costly and bulky. Can be substantial cost of the total system. If a power switch is not cooled to its specified junction temperature, the full power capability of the switch cannot be realized. Main losses: forward conduction losses, blocking state losses switching losses

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Switching Power Losses

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Types of PE Circuits
Diode Rectifier AC-DC Converter (controlled rectifier) AC-AC Converter (ac voltage controller) DC-DC converter (dc chopper) DC-AC Converter (inverter) Static Switches

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Diode Rectifier
It converts ac voltage into a fixed dc voltage.

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AC-DC Converter
It converts ac voltage into dc voltage of variable magnitude by varying the conduction time of a Thyristor.

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AC-AC Converter
It converts ac voltage into variable ac voltage by varying the conduction time of a TRIAC.

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DC-DC converter
It converts the dc voltage into variable dc, by controlling the conduction time of transistor.

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DC-AC Converter
It converts the dc voltage into ac, by controlling the conduction time and sequence of transistors.

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Static Switches

Static Switches: Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS): Mains1 supplies the normal power to the load. The ac-dc converter charges the standby battery. The dc-ac converter supplies the emergency power to the load.
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Conclusions
Power electronic System and its scope, applications and importance Control Characteristics of PE devices. Losses in solid state switches Types of Power Electronic Circuits. Properties of Capacitor and Inductor in PE circuits.

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