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Multiple Access

01204325: Data Communication and Computer Networks
Asst. Prof. Chaiporn Jaikaeo, Ph.D. chaiporn.j@ku.ac.th http://www.cpe.ku.ac.th/~cpj Computer Engineering Department Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand

Adapted from lecture slides by Behrouz A. Forouzan © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Outline
   

Multiple access mechanisms Random access Controlled access Channelization

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Sublayers of Data Link Layer

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Multiple Access Mechanisms

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Random Access .

Random Access   Also called contention-based access No station is assigned to control another 6 .

ALOHA Network 7 .

Frames in Pure ALOHA 8 .

ALOHA Protocol 9 .

2ms} When K=2. when stations on an ALOHA network are a maximum of 600 km apart Tp = (600 × 103) / (3 × 108) = 2 ms    When K=1. TB  {0ms.6ms} : 10 .2ms. TB  {0ms.Example  Calculate possible values of TB.4ms.

ALOHA: Vulnerable Time 11 .

ALOHA: Throughput    Assume number of stations trying to transmit follow Poisson Distribution The throughput for pure ALOHA is S = G × e−2G where G is the average number of frames requested per frame-time The maximum throughput  Smax = 0.184 when G= 1/2 12 .

Example  A pure ALOHA network transmits 200-bit frames on a shared channel of 200 kbps. What is the throughput if the system (all stations together) produces    1000 frames per second 500 frames per second 250 frames per second 13 .

Slotted ALOHA 14 .

Slotted ALOHA: Vulnerable Time 15 .

Slotted ALOHA: Throughput  The throughput for Slotted ALOHA is S = G × e−G  where G is the average number of frames requested per frame-time The maximum throughput  Smax = 0.368 when G= 1 16 .

What is the throughput if the system (all stations together) produces    1000 frames per second 500 frames per second 250 frames per second 17 .Example  A Slotted ALOHA network transmits 200bit frames on a shared channel of 200 kbps.

CSMA  Carrier Sense Multiple Access  "Listen before talk" But cannot completely eliminate it  Reduce the possibility of collision  18 .

Collision in CSMA 19 .

CSMA: Vulnerable Time 20 .

Persistence Methods  What a station does when channel is idle or busy 21 .

Persistence Methods 22 .

CSMA/CD   Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Station monitors channel when sending a frame 23 .

Energy Levels 24 .

CSMA/CD: Minimum Frame Size   Each frame must be large enough for a sender to detect a collision Worst case scenario:   "A" is transmitting "D" starts transmitting just before A's signal arrives A B C D Long enough to hear colliding signal from D 25 .

what is the minimum size of the frame? 26 .6 μs. If the maximum propagation time is 25.Example  A CSMA/CD network has a bandwidth of 10 Mbps.

CSMA/CD: Flow Diagram 27 .

g. wireless LAN IFS – Interframe Space 28 ..CSMA/CA   Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance Used in a network where collision cannot be detected  E.

If idle.If busy.CSMA/CA: Flow Diagram contention window size is 2K-1 After each slot: . stop counting 29 . continue counting .

Controlled Access .

g.Control Access   A station must be authorized by someone (e. other stations) before transmitting Three common methods:    Reservation Polling Token passing 31 ..

Reservation Method 32 .

Polling Method 33 .

Token Passing 34 .

Channelization .

Channelization   Similar to multiplexing Three schemes    Frequency-Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) 36 .

FDMA 37 .

TDMA 38 .

CDMA   One channel carries all transmissions at the same time Each channel is separated by code 39 .

CDMA: Chip Sequences  Each station is assigned a unique chip sequence  Chip sequences are orthogonal vectors  Inner product of any pair must be zero  With N stations. sequences must have the following properties:   They are of length N Their self inner product is always N 40 .

CDMA: Bit Representation 41 .

Transmission in CDMA 42 .

CDMA Encoding 43 .

Signal Created by CDMA 44 .

CDMA Decoding 45 .

Sequence Generation  Common method: Walsh Table  Number of sequences is always a power of two 46 .

Example: Walsh Table  Find chip sequences for eight stations 47 .

Example: Walsh Table  There are 80 stations in a CDMA network. What is the length of the sequences generated by Walsh Table? 48 .