You are on page 1of 23

Introduction

Operating Systems Concepts and Structure

The Definition of an OS
Where comes the OS in?
A computer system consists of:
User software System software Hardware User Applications Compilers Editors Shells

Operating System System hardware

Spring, 2008

TUCN. Operating Systems. Lecture 1

No. 2

What is OS?
Operating System is a software, which makes a computer to actually work. It is the software the enables all the programs we use. The OS organizes and controls the hardware. OS acts as an interface between the application programs and the machine hardware. Examples: Windows, Linux, Unix and Mac OS, etc.,

No. 3

What OS does?
An operating system performs basic tasks such as, controlling and allocating memory, prioritizing system requests, controlling input and output devices, facilitating networking and managing file systems.

No. 4

GOALS OF AN OPERATING SYSTEM


o To make the computer system convenient to use. o To use the computer hardware in an efficient manner.
No. 5

PURPOSE OF AN OPERATING SYSTEM


The purpose of an operating system is to provide an environment in which a user may execute programs.

No. 6

Abstract view of the components of a computer system


Users Application Programs Operating system Computer Hardware

No. 7

OPERATING SYSTEM
An Operating System is a system software which may be viewed as an organized collection of software consisting of procedures for operating a computer and providing an environment for execution of programs.

No. 8

PURPOSE OF AN OPERATING SYSTEM


A computers Operating system is a group of programs designed to serve two basic purposes: To control the allocation and use of the computing systems resources among the various users and tasks. To provide an interface between the computer hardware and the programmer.

No. 9

FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEM


o o o o o o

Memory management Process management Device management Information management Protection Error Handling
No. 10

FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEM


o o o o o o

Memory management Process management Device management Information management Protection The o/s keeps track of the memory, what Handling parts are in use and by whom. Error
No. 11

FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEM


o o o o o o

Memory management Process management Device management Information management

The o/s keeps track of processors Protection and the status of processes. It decides who will have a chance to Error Handling use the processor.
No. 12

FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEM


o o o o o o

Memory management Process management Device management Information management


The o/s keeps track of the devices, Protection channels, control units and decides Error Handling what is an efficient way to allocate the device.
No. 13

FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEM O/S keeps track of the information,


o o o o o o

its location, use, status etc. and decides Memory management who gets use of the resources, Process management enforce protection requirements

Device management Information management Protection Error Handling


No. 14

FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEM


o o o o o o

An o/s is to protect the user from Memory management unauthorized access of his files or data. Process management And also it should protect itself from users management Device Information management

Protection Error Handling


No. 15

FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEM


o o o o o o

Memory management Process management


An o/s must respond to errors by taking Device management the appropriate actions.-*

Information management Protection Error Handling


No. 16

Structure of Operating System (Contd):


The structure of OS consists of 4 layers: 1. Hardware Hardware consists of CPU, Main memory, I/O Devices, etc, 2. Software (Operating System) Software includes process management routines, memory management routines, I/O control routines, file management routines.

(Contd)
No. 17

Structure of Operating System (Contd):


3. System programs This layer consists of compilers, Assemblers, linker etc. 4. Application programs This is dependent on users need. Ex. Railway reservation system, Bank database management etc.,

No. 18

Computer Hardware (2)


Monitor

BUS

Tanenbaum, Fig. 1-5.

Spring, 2008

TUCN. Operating Systems. Lecture 1

No. 19

Types of OS:
Operating System can also be classified as,-

Single User Systems Multi User Systems

No. 20

Single User Systems:


Provides a platform for only one user at a time. They are popularly associated with Desk Top operating system which run on standalone systems where no user accounts are required. Example: DOS
No. 21

Multi-User Systems:
Provides regulated access for a number of users by maintaining a database of known users. Refers to computer systems that support two or more simultaneous users. Another term for multi-user is time sharing.

Ex: All mainframes and are multi-user systems. Example: Unix


No. 22

A Classification of OSs
Mainframe operating systems: OS/390 Server operating systems: UNIX, Windows 2000, Linux Multiprocessor operating systems PC operating systems:
Windows 98, Windows ME, Macintosh, Linux

Real-time operating systems: VxWorks, QNX Embedded operating systems:


PalmOS, Windows CE, Windows Mobile, Symbia

Spring, 2008

TUCN. Operating Systems. Lecture 1

No. 23