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BITUMINOUS BINDERS FOR ROAD CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING RECENT TRENDS

Dr. Vinay
M.Tech,M.Phill

Senior Scientist Pavements Design and Analysis (PEM)

A) BITUMINOUS MATERIALS FOR


ROADS, THEIR SPECIFICATIONS

& TEST PROCEDURES


BITUMEN ( HOT )

B)

BITUMEN EMULSION ( COLD )

POLYMER / RUBBER MODIFIED BITUMEN ( PMB )

COMMON BINDERS:
ROAD TARS

BITUMEN
CUT-BACK BITUMEN

BITUMEN EMULSION

SPECIAL BINDER
MODIFIED BITUMEN

AVAILABLE GRADES OF BITUMEN


30/ 40 COASTAL AREAS

60/70

FOR ROADS AND AIRFIELDS

80/100 GENERAL ROAD CONSTRUCTION


AND MAINTENANCE

ANNUAL CONSUMPTION
1985-86 1.1 MILLION TONES

1989-90
1991-92

1.5 MILLION TONNES


1.7 MILLION TONNES

AT PRESENT - 3.8 MILLION TONNES

QUALITY OF BITUMEN QUALITY VARIES FROM REFINERY TO REFINERY FOR SAME PENETRATION GRADE QUALITY VARIES FROM BATCH TO BATCH

S.No Characteristics 1 2 3 4 PEN. 25C

S 35

S45 4050 4560 35 75

S55 5060 4560 35 75

S 65 6070 4055 35 75

S 90 80100 3550 35 75

3040 Soft.pt.C 5065 Pen. Ratio(min.) 35 Ductility,27C,cm 50 ,(min) Flash pointC,min 175

S 200 175225 3045 35 -

175

175

175

175

175

6
7

Sp.Gravity, 27C,min Water,%,max. Wax ,%, max(IS 10512)

0.99
0.2

0.99
0.2

0.99
0.2

0.99
0.2

0.99
0.2

0.99
0.2

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

8 9 10

11
12 13

Wax ,%, max(IS 10512) Frass break pt., C,min Loss on heat,%(TFOT),max. Retained Pen.(TFOT) 25 C,%, original,min % sol.,TCE,min Viscosity,60C,Poises

4.5 -4 1

4.5 -4 1

4.5 -6 1

4.5 -6 1

4.5 -8 1

4.5 -10 2

55
99

55
99

52
99

52
99

47
99

42
99
2505 0

2500 2000 500 400

1500 1000 500 300 200 100

135C,cst,min

220

210

180

150

110

20

TYPE 2 BITUMEN
S.No Characteristics
PEN. 25C Soft.pt.C Pen. Ratio(min.)

A 35

A55

A65

A 90

1 2 3 4

30-40 50-60 60-70 80100 55-70 45-60 45-60 35-50 25 25 15 25 15 25 15

Ductility,27C,cm, 10 (min)

Flash pointC,min 175

175

175

175

Sp.Gravity, 27C,min

0.99

0.99

0.99

0.98

7 8

Water,%,max. Wax ,%, max(IS 10512)

0.2 10

0.2 10

0.2 10

0.2 10

Frass break pt., C,min

-4
1 57 99

-6
1 57 99

-8
1 47 99

-10
1 42 99
20050

10 Loss on heat,%(TFOT),max. 11 Retained Pen.(TFOT) 25 C,%, original,min 12 % sol.,TCE,min 13 Viscosity,60C,Poises

10003 400300 30010 00 250

135C,cst,min

100

70

50

TESTING OF BITUMINOUS MATERIALS


PROPERTIES - IS 73 TEST PROCEDURES - IS 1201 to 20 PHYSICAL TEST ON PAVING BITUMEN (a) Penetration It is a measure of hardness or consistency of bitumen. Penetration is the vertical distance traversed by a standard needle expressed in unit of 0.1 mm under specified test conditions. The test conditions are as follows: 25 C, 100 gm load, 5 seconds 4 C, 200 gm load, 60 seconds

(B) SOFTENING POINT


It is the temperature at which a substance (bitumen) attains a particular degree of softness under the specified test conditions. In the test method the liquid bath is heated at a prescribed rate. The temperature at which a standard steel ball placed on the layer of bitumen kept in a standard ring passes through the bitumen layer and touches the bottom plate kept at a distance of 2.54cm, is the softening point of bitumen.

(C) DUCTILITY
Ductility is measured as a distance in cm to which a briquette specimen of bitumen will elongate before it breaks when the specimen is pulled apart at specified speed and temperature. Speed 5 cm/min Test temperature of water bath 27C Significance The ductility value signifies the property by virtue of which a bitumen can exist in a thin film without breaking.

(E) FLASH & FIRE POINT, IS:1209-1978.


The flash point of bitumen is the lowest temperature in C at which the application of a test flame causes the vapour from bitumen to catch fire momentarily in the form of a flash under specified conditions of the test. The fire point is the lowest temperature at which the application of the test flame causes bitumen to ignite and burn at least for 5 seconds under specified conditions of the test.

(F) VISCOSITY
Viscosity is the property of bitumen by which it resist flow due to internal friction. Generally, it is measured by determining time in seconds taken by specified volume of a material to flow from a standard viscometer cup through an orifice of specified diameter at specified temperature.

The standard tar viscometer covers a viscosity range of 320-5600 Centistoke. The symbol n is used for the term viscosity which is also called as absolute viscosity.

Kinematic Viscosity

absolute viscosity (Poise) ------------------------------density of the liquid

G) SPECIFIC GRAVITY
Wt of SG Bottle = A Wt of Bottle + Water = B Wt of Bottle + 1/2 filled Bitumen = C Wt Bottle + Bitumen + Water = D SG = (C - A)/ {(B-A) - (D-A)}

(H) PURITY TEST, IS:1216-1978


By checking solubility in Trichloro-ethylene. Minimum 99% solubility is desired to ensure that carbon and mineral materials are of negligible level.

(I) WATER CONTENT


A knowledge of water content in bitumen is important for safe transfer of product and prevention of fire hazard as a result of

excessive frothing during heating in bulk.


This test is carried out in Dean-Stark

apparatus.

(J) LOSS ON HEAT TEST, IS:1212-1978


It is the loss of weight of bitumen due to evaporation of volatiles when bitumen is heated at 163 C for 5.15 hours in a specified cup under specified conditions of tests. The loss

in weight and percent retained penetration of


residue are determined. The test signifies

resistance to hardening during mixing.

FRAASS BRITTLE POINT TEST


Fraass breaking point is the temperature at which

a binder first becomes brittle as indicated by


the appearance of cracks when a thin film of

binder, 0.005 cm thick on a metal plaque is cooled


at a rate of 1C per minute and flexed at a

constant rate.

POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN(PMB)Product, Purpose, Advantages Including Global and Indian Scenario

Central Road Research Institute New Delhi

TYPICAL PROBLEMS IN INDIA

Severe Overloading
Extreme variation of climatic conditions Premature cracking of pavements

LIMITATIONS OF CONVENTIONAL BITUMEN

BRITTLENESS AT LOW TEMPERATURE BECOMES SOFT IN HOT CLIMATIC CONDITIONS HIGH TEMPERATURE SUSCEPTIBILITY SUSCEPTIBLE TO VISCOELASTIC DEFORMATION (RUTTING) FATIGUE FAILURE (CRACKING) POOR ADHESION

Bitumen produced by the traditional


methods of vacuum reduction and air blowing of petroleum crude can not meet all the requirements of increasing severe service conditions namely :

1. Roads with high traffic intensity of expressways & highways 2. Road locations subjected to heavy traffic stress e.g. bus stops, intersections, roundabouts & bridge decks.

3. Reflection cracks in bituminous overlays


over cracked concrete pavements

4. Urban roads where reduced surfacing


thickness is desired

5. Surfacing for low temperature snow


bound areas

6. Airfield surfacing where high stiffness


and thermal stability is required

A S0LUTION FOR ALL THESE PROBLEMS LIES IN USE OF POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN

WHAT ARE POLYMERS?


When small chemical units, called monomers, are joined together in chains they form polymers. When monomers such as styrene and butadiene are reacted into chains, for example, they form polystyrene and polybutadiene, respectively.

Classification of Polymer Modifiers There are mainly two types of polymers used for development of Polymer Modified Bitumen (PMB) Thermoplastic:

Plastomers: e.g low density Polyethylene (LDPE)

Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) Elastomers: Ethylene Butyl Acrylate (EBA)


.

Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS) Polyisoprene, chloroprene Polybutadiene, Ethylene Ter Polymer Natural Rubber,

Waste Tyre Rubber

Thermosets : Epoxy Resins

Properties Improved by Rubber/Polymer

A sufficient increase in viscosity, prevents


plastic deformation. An increase in flexibility and elasticity of binder at low temperatures to delay the crack formation (mainly due to fatigue failure) and

loss of chipping.

High thermostability, improved homogeneity and aging resistance, thus helping to reduce the hardening of

the binder during mixing, laying and pavement service


life.

Development of PMB
Melting Behaviour of Polymers
LDPE - 114 C EVA - 90 C ELVALOY - 60 C

Degradation Behaviour
Above 250 C

PRODUCT (MODIFIED BITUMEN)

Be compatible with bitumen

Resist degradation of bitumen at mixing temperature Be capable of being processed by conventional mixing and laying machinery
Produce coating viscosity at application temperature

Maintain premium properties during storage, application and in service


Be cost-effective on a lifecycle-cost basis.

Advantages of PMB

- Lower susceptibility to daily and seasonal


temperature variations

- Higher resistance to deformation at elevated


pavement temperature - Better age resistance properties - Higher fatigue life of mixes

Better adhesion between aggregates and


binder

- Prevention of cracking and reflective


cracking

- Overall improved performance in extreme


climatic conditions and under heavy traffic conditions.

APPLICATIONS OF POLYMER AND RUBBER MODIFIED BITUMEN


Stress Absorbing Membranes (SAM) Stress Absorbing Membranes Interlayer (SAMI)

Renewal courses as a part of maintenance High traffic loads, e.g., Highways and Airfield Pavements

The Tables are


Properties of Bitumen from Different Indian

Refinenies
Physical Properties of Polymer Modified Bitumen

Cohesion Strength & Stiffness Characteristics

Storage Stability Test on Polymer Modified Bitumen


Sample Penetration, 0.1mm. units at 25 C Top Bottom 50 50 58 40 43 42 52 82 65 41 46 51 50 57 39 41 41 53 81 65 40 45

A+5% SBS A+5% EVA A+5% LDPE B+5% SBS B+5% EVA B+5% LDPE B+2% PPW B+2% HTPB A+2% PE+2 EVA C+6% SBS C+4% EVA

FLEXURAL FATIGUE LIFE RESULTS


Beam Size- 200 mm x 37. 6 mm x 37.6 mm (Temp 25 C )
SAMPLE CYCLES
TO FAILURE A 80/100 4500 A+2 % LDPE

SAMPLE

CYCLES
TO FAILURE 4080

B 60/70
A+2 % SBS A+5% SBS A+10% SBS A+2% EVA A+5% EVA A+10% EVA

11500
48802 91000 63800 4900 8800 10100

A+5 % LDPE
A+10% LDPE A+2 % PE+2% EVA A+2% PE+5% EVA B+2 % PPW B+1% HTPB B+2% HTPB

4800
750 10840 14750 8800 46500 16500

Global scenario
Modifiers as an individual or as a group of materials have made successful path into

the road and other construction industries


in advanced countries.

Elastomer modified binders


(SBS, SBR, SIS) Plastomer modified binders (EVA, LDPE, EMA, EBA) Rubber and other miscellaneous 15% 75%

modified bituminous binders

10%

APPLICATIONS AND TYPE OF MODIFIERS USED IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

INDIAN SCENARIO
LABORATORY RESEARCH

In India, the Flexible Pavements Division of

CRRI initiated laboratory research on


polymer modified bitumen in 1980. Since

then number of polymer/rubber modifiers


were investigated for their feasibility of using

for hot mix as well as cold mix paving


applications. These modifiers are :

LDPE EVA

SBS GILSONITE
NATURAL RUBBER POLYBUTADIENE RUBBER

ELAVALOY AM JSR RODEX U II PLASTIC WASTE NOVOPHALT

SEALOFLEX STARFLEX CRUMB/TYRE RUBBER

TBM

SUPER (CHEMICALLY

TREATED CRUMB RUBBER)

CRRI has patent rights of some of the PMBs namely PMB developed with EVA an d SBS. The following firms have purchased Patents developed by CRRI
M/s. M.K. Petroproducts (P) Ltd.
(New Delhi)

1.
2.

PLASTOMER (EVA)
MODIFIED BITUMEN PLASTOMER (EVA) MODIFIED BITUMEN ELASTOMER (SBS) MODIFIED BITUMEN PLASTOMER (EVA) MODIFIED BITUMEN

M/s. Osnar Chemicals (P) Ltd. (T.K. Industries Estate,Mumbai)

3.

M/s. Tiki Tar Industries ( Vadodra )

4.

M/s. Yegnan & Co. (Mumbai)

5.

M/s. Solid Asphalt Industries (Mumbai )

PLASTOMER (EVA) MODIFIED BITUMEN PLASTOMER (EVA) MODIFIED BITUMEN

6.

M/s Soham Chemicals Pvt Ltd (Pune)

JSR RODEX UII and other rubber emulsions

are not mixed with bitumen.

Such modifiers are added directly to the


aggregate- bitumen mixture while preparing

bitumen mixes in the hot mix plant.

Elavaloy AM is another modifier


evaluated in CRRI. Elavaloy AM (1 to 1.5%) is blended with bitumen in presence of a catalyst (super phosphoric acid)

Better performance than conventional


bitumen when subjected to elastic

recovery, aging, adhesion, indirect Tensile and Marshall Stability tests.

Plastic Waste can also be used for

bitumen modification.
Such type of waste being thermoplastic

in nature should be easily compatible.


Dealing with the plastic waste is more

complicated as the composition (quality)


of waste available in open market is not consistent.

Specifications are not available for plastic

waste modifiers. CRRI has carried out


research on plastic waste modified bitumen

using LDPE waste .


Laboratory studies indicated better

performance of modified bitumen than


conventional 80/100 binder in terms of their physical properties, mechanical strength and fatigue behaviour.
.

CRUMB RUBBER POWDER


There are two methods of producing

rubber powder from discarded tyres.


Grinding at ambient temperature

Cryogenic method (very costly and -140 C temperature is required)

CRUMB RUBBER
Grinding at RT Sponge like surface of Rubber particles High surface Area cryogenically ground (liquid N2) Clean flat surface Less Surface Area

Fast reaction between


Lower elastic recovery

Slow reaction rate with bitumen


Higher Elastic Recovery

Crumb rubber powder is incorporated in

bituminous mixes by following two different


ways :

Dry Method
Wet Method

TBM Super (Chemically Modified Crumb) has following advantages over crumb rubber available from open market.
- TBM Super is blended with bitumens at
conventional temperature (160 C) like EVA & LDPE Polymers which is lower as compared to high temperature( 220 required for other crumb rubber. - Blending time is shorter (30 minutes) as compared to 2 hours in case of crumb available from open market.

- Aging is less than conventional bitumen


as determined by thin film oven test. - Able to reduced stripping of bituminous mix significantly indicating thereby the better adhesion as compared to conventional bitumen. - Overall performance of bituminous mixes was improved in terms of their physical, mechanical and fatigue behaviour.

Field Trials :
Field trials using PMB products patented by CRRI were carried out in different climatic regions of

India. A list of such trials is given below :


R-54 Ministry of Surface Transport Research Scheme Test Tracks were Kanpur Modified Varanasi laid on NH-2 on with Bitumen

with LDPE, EVA, SBS and

Crumb Rubber

PMB Test Tracks using SBS and EVA were laid on :

NH-3 near Bombay SH-45 Km. 308.8 to 309.0 Joshimath

Badrinath Road
-

Manali Kulu Road

Hindustan Tibet Road near Shimla

Chemically Treated Crumb Rubber

Test Tracks were laid on NH-1 near Ambala Ring Road Opposite Rajghat near Delhi - Natural Rubber Modified Bitumen M.C. Road Trivandrum Ring Road Delhi, - ETHYLENE TERPOLYMER

Elvaloy AM on Jaipur Agra Road near Jaipur Goa Airfield

PERFORMANCE OF TRIAL SECTIONS Periodic performance evaluation of test

section laid with PMB/CRMB upto five


years after construction proved their better performance over conventional surfacing. Maintenance period of 12 years on a National Highway with a heavy traffic, two renewal coats will be enough instead of three as required under the existing specification.

The use of SAMI of modified bitumen in


between old surface having extensive cracks and renewal renewal by 2-3 years. coats, extends life of

The cost of periodic maintenance may be

reduced by 20-30 Percent.

PMB Road after 7 years

CRRI

Salient Points for Discussion


The life cycle cost of test section of PMB

varies from location to location and is also dependent on the type, thickness and other environmental factors.
More field trials should be encouraged in high ,medium and low rainfall areas. To assess the suitability of various grades of PMB and CRMB for different climatic regions of India.

MOST should be requested to incorporate

use of PMB /CRMB and related quality control aspects covering all the test needed with laboratory facilities including the financial implications in tender itself. Blending of PMBs /CRMBs with bitumen at site as well as hot mix plant is acceptable as long as modified bitumen meet IRC SP 53 Specification.

CRRI scientist may supervise the construction with PMBs in NH work if user agencies bear the expenses.

Thus while not cure all bitumen modifiers carefully selected and applied, have capacity to extend pavement service life.

SPECIFICATION FOR POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN IN RELATION TO ALL BITUMINOUS WORK


by

Dr. Sangita Scientist,Flexible Pavements Division Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi

TENTATIVE GUIDELINES ON USE OF

POLYMER AND RUBBER MODIFIED


BITUMEN IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

(IRC:SP:53-1999) HAVE BEEN


RECENTLY PUBLISHED BY INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS.

THESE GUIDELINES DEAL WITH THE USE OF POLYMER AND

RUBBER MODIFIED BITUMEN IN


ROAD CONSTRUCTION AND

THEIR ADVANTAGES,TYPE AND


INDICATIVE DOSE OF MODIFIER

AND PRECAUTIONS NEEDED


DURING THEIR USE .

SPECIFICATIONS, APPLICATIONS, CHOICE OF APPROPRIATE GRADE AND HANDLING AT SITE ARE ALSO DEALT IN THESE GUIDELINES. BROAD RANGE OF TEMPERATURE PREVAILING AT DIFFERENT CONSTRUCTION SITES, METHODS OF TEST FOR PHASE SEPARATIONS AND ELASTIC RECOVERY ARE INCLUDED IN THESE GUIDELINES.

THE QUANTITY OF MODIFIER ARE DETERMINED BY TESTS ON BITUMEN, MODIFIED BITUMEN AND ON BITUMINOUS MIXES THE TESTS FOR SOFTENING POINT, ELASTIC RECOVERY AND MARSHALL QUOTIENT ARE SIGNIFICANT TO DETERMINE REQUIRED DOSE OF MODIFIER, IF THE MODIFIER IS MIXED AT SITE.

SOME PRODUCTS ARE ALSO AVAILABLE IN MARKET, IN WHICH BITUMEN HAS BEEN MODIFIED WITH A BLEND OF MODIFIERS. THE PRODUCT SHALL COMPLY TO THE ABOVE REQUIREMENTS. IN CASE OF PROPRIETARY PRODUCTS, TEST REPORTS AND COST EFFECTIVENESS MAY BE THE BASIS FOR THEIR SELECTION IN ROAD WORKS.

TYPE OF BITUMEN MODIFIERS AND THEIR INDICATIVE DOSE DIFFERENT TYPES OF MODIFIERS HAVE BEEN INVESTIGATED AS ADDITIVES FOR BITUMEN MODIFICATIONS. SOME OF THEM, WHICH ARE REPORTED TO HAVE DESIRED POTENTIAL AND THEIR INDICATIVE DOSE ARE GIVEN IN TABLE 1.

Requirements of PMB
(Elastomeric Thermoplastic and Rubber Latex) OLD
Sl No Types of Modifiers Examples Indicative Dose

Plastic Thermoplastics Thermosets Elastomers Natural Rubber Synthetic Elastomers

Low Density Polyethylene EVA, EBA Epoxy Resins

3-6

3-5 Latex or Dry Rubber Powder Styrene Butadiene Styrene Block Copolymer (SBS), Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) 2-4 3-5

Reclaimed Rubbers

Tyre Crumb Rubber Powder

10-12

PROPRIETARY PRODUCTS MAY CONTAIN DIFFERENT ADDITIVES A BLEND OF

POLYMERIC TO ACHIEVE

IMPROVEMENT IN PROPERTIES OF
BITUMEN FOR ROAD WORKS.

SPECIFICATIONS FOR POLYMER AND RUBBER MODIFIED BITUMEN


THE REQUIREMENT OF NATURAL RUBBER (NR) IN THE FORM OF LATEX, ELASTOMERIC THERMOPLASTICS LIKE STYRENEBUTADIENE STYRENE BLOCK COPOLYMER (SBS) AND STYRENE BUTADIENE STYRENE BLOCK (SBR) ARE GIVEN IN TABLE 2.

Requirements of Polymer Modified Bitumen (Elastomeric Thermoplastics & Rubber Latex)


Designation Penetration at 25 C Softening Point C (min) Frass Point C Ductility at 27 C Flash PointC (min) Elastic Recovery at 15 C Separation Viscosity at 150 C Poise PMB 120 90-150 50 -24 75 220 75 3 1-3 PMB 70 50-90 55 -18 60 220 75 3 2-6 PMB 40 30-50 60 -12 50 220 75 3 3-9

Requirements of Polymer Modified Bitumen (Elastomeric Thermoplastics )-2004(IS:15462)


Designation Penetration at 25 C Penetration at 4 C Softening Point C Ductility at 27 C Frass Point C Flash PointC Elastic Recovery at 15 C Separation Viscosity at 150 C Poise PMB 120 90-150 50 50 + 75 -20 220 70 3 1-3 PMB 70 50-90 55 55 + 60 -16 220 70 3 2-6 PMB 40 30-50 60 60 + 50 -12 220 70 3 3-9

Test on Thin Film Oven Test Residue, TFOT

ReductionPenetration

at 25 C (%), max
Increase in Softening Point C (max)

35

35

35

Elastic Recovery at 25 C

50

50

50

REQUIREMENT FOR MODIFIED BITUMEN PREPARED BY

THERMOPLASTICS VIZ. ETHYLENE


VINYL ACETATE (EVA), ETHYLENE

BUTY/METHYL ACRYLATE (EBA/EMA)


AND LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LDPE) ARE GIVEN IN TABLE 3.

Requirements of Polymer Modified Bitumen (Plastomeric Thermoplastics )


Designation Penetration at 25 C Softening Point C (min) Fraass Point C Ductility at 27 C Flash PointC Elastic Recovery at 15 C Separation Viscosity at 150 C Poise PMB 120 90-150 50 -20 50 220 50 3 1-3 PMB 70 50-90 55 -16 40 220 50 3 2-6 PMB 40 30-50 60 -12 30 220 50 3 3-9

Requirements of Polymer Modified Bitumen (Plastomeric Thermoplastics )-2004 Designation 40 Penetration at 25 C Softening Point C PMB 120 PMB 70 PMB

90-150
50 55

50-90
60

30-50

Fraass Point C Flash PointC


Elastic Recovery at 15 C Complex modulus as min 1.0 KPa at 10 rad/sec Separation Viscosity at 150 C Poise

-20 220
50 52 3 3

-16 220
40 58 3

-12 220
30 70

1-3

2-6

3-9

Requirements of Polymer Modified Bitumen (Plastomeric Thermoplastics)


Test on Thin Film Oven Test Residue, TFOT Designation Loss in weight Increase in Softening Point C Reduction in Penetration Elastic Recovery at 25 C PMB 120 1.0 7 35 35 PMB 70 1.0 6 35 35 PMB 40 1.0 5 35 35

Requirements of Polymer Modified Bitumen (Plastomeric Thermoplastics)-2004 Test on Thin Film Oven Test Residue, TFOT Designation
Loss in weight

PMB 120
1.0

PMB 70
1.0

PMB 40
1.0

Increase in Softening Point C


Reduction in Penetration at 25 C % Max Elastic Recovery at 25 C Complex modulus as min 2.2kPa at 10 rad/sec at a Temperature C

7 35

6 35

5 35

35 52

35 58

35 70

Requirements of Rubber Modified Bitumen Treated with Modified Crumb Rubber


Designation
Penetration at 25 C

CRMB50
<70

CRMB55
<60

CRMB60
<50

Softening Point C (min)


Elastic Recovery at 15 C Flash Point C (min) Separation Difference in S. P C (max)

50
50 220 4

55
50 220 4

60
50 220 4

Requirements of Polymer Modified Bitumen Treated with Modified Crumb Rubber-2004


Designation CRMB 50 CRMB 55 Penetration at 25 C <70 <60 Softening Point C 50 55 Elastic Recovery at 15 C 50 50 Flash PointC 220 220 Separation( Diff in S.P) 4 4 Viscosity at 150C,Poise 1-3 2-6 Test on Thin Film Oven Test Residue, TFOT CRMB 60 <50 60 50 220 4 3-9

Penetration at 25 C Increase in Softening Point C Elastic Recovery at 15 C

60
7 35

60
6 35

60
5 35

Requirements of Rubber Modified Bitumen


Treated with Modified Natural Rubber
Designation
Penetration at 25 C Softening Point C (min) Elastic Recovery at 15 C Flash Point C (min) Separation Difference in S. P C (max) 4 4 4

NRMB120 NRMB70
90-150 50 50 220 50-90 55 40 220

NRMB40
30-50 60 30 220

Requirements of Natural Rubber Modified Binders (NRMB)-2004 Designation NRMB 120 NRMB 70 Penetration at 25 C 90-150 50-90 Softening Point C,min 45 50 Viscosity at 150C,Poise 1-3 2-6 Fraass Breaking Point C -20 -16 Elastic Recovery at 15 C 50 40 Flash PointC 220 220 Separation( Diff in S.P) 4 4

NRMB 40 30-50 55 3-9 -12 30 220 4

Test on Thin Film Oven Test Residue, TFOT

Penetration at 25 C % of
Original (min) Increase in Softening Point C Elastic Recovery at 25 C 7 35 6 30 5 25 60 60 60

Test on Thin Film Oven Test Residue, TFOT-2004

Penetration at 25 C % of Original (min) 60 60 60

Increase in Softening
Point C 7 6 5

Elastic Recovery at 25 C

35

25

20

Selection Criteria for PMB &CRMB Based on Atmospheric Temperature


Maximum Atmospheric Temparature, C

Minimum Pavement Temparature, C

<35 <-10 PMB/NRM B-120 CRMB-50 10to -10 PMB/NRM B-70 CRMB-50 >10 PMB/NRM B-70 CRMB-55

35-45 PMB/ NRMB-70 CRMB-55 PMB/NRM B-70 CRMB-55 PMB/NRM B-70 CRMB-55

>45 PMB/NRM B-70 CRMB-55 PMB/NMR B-40 CRMB-60 PMB/NRM B-40 CRMB-60

DESIGN OF MIXES
Hot Mix construction should be carried out at
an atmospheric temperature above 15 deg C.

The mix design should be carried out as per


Marshall Method The properties of hot mix prepared with PMB/CRMB should be as follows :

Requirements of Mix Prepared with Modified Bitumen


Sl Properties Hot Cold High Rainfall

1
2

Marshall Stability at 60C, Kg Minimum


Marshall Flow, mm

1200
2.5-4.0

1000
3.5-5.0

1200
3-4.5

3
4 5

Marshall Quotient, kg/mm


Voids in Mix, % Requirement of retained stability after 24hrs in water Coating with aggregate

250-500
3-5 90 95 100

95

95

100

HANDLING OF MODIFIED BITUMENS AND MIXES


Modifier should be thoroughly blended

with bitumen

Different types of modifiers require


different techniques of blending

Storage Stability of Modified bitumen is


important

Blended bitumen should be supplied


in tankers and if supplied in drums shall be agitated in hot condition with suitable device for 10 to 15 minutes before use. Penetration, Softening point, separation and elastic recovery tests shall be conducted at site for a lot of 5 tonne
PMB.

Broad Range of Viscosity and Requirement for Modified Binders


Stage of work Binder at mixing Plant Mix at mixing Plant Mix at laying site Rolling at laying site Viscosity Max 2 poise Max 4 poise Max 5 poise Temperature C 165-185 140-160 130-150

10 1000 poise 115-135

CONTROLS

The Specifications for various items of road work using PMB /CRMB are

same as for conventional binder


until and unless the manufacturer or

supplier indicate any special condition

THE VARIOUS TESTS REQUIRED

TO SATISFY THESE SPECIFICATIONS


AND SIGNIFICANCE OF EACH

TEST ARE:

TESTING OF BITUMEN

TESTING OF POLY. MODIFIED BITUMEN (IS 1201 1220) (IRC: SP 53, 1999) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------PENETRATION PENETRATION SOFTENING TEMPERATURE SOFTENING TEMPERATURE DUCTILITY FRASS BREAKING POINT FLASH AND FIRE POINT DUCTILITY PURITY FLASH POINT SPECIFIC GRAVITY ELASTIC RECOVERY WATER CONTENT SEPARATION LOW TEMPERATURE DUCTILITY VISCOSITY VISCOSITY THIN FILM OVEN TEST RESIDUE

PENETRATION IT IS A MEASURE OF HARDNESS OR CONSISTENCY OF BITUMEN. IT IS VERTICAL DISTANCE TRAVERSED BY A STANDARD NEEDLE EXPRESSED IN UNIT OF 0.1 MM UNDER SPECIFIED TEST CONDITIONS 25C, 100G, 5SEC 4C, 200G, 60SEC

SIGNIFICANCE: TO IDENTIFY THE GRADE OF UNKNOWN BITUMEN TO CHECK THE QUALITY (GRADE) OF A BITUMEN TO PREDICT AGE HARDENING (OXIDATION) PENETRATION AT 4C HELPS IN PREDICTION OF LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL CRACKING(BRITTLENESS)

PR

Pen. At 4C/200g/60 sec Pen. At 25C/100g/5 sec


(20 500 PTS) /(1+50 PTS) log Pen. at T1 log Pen. at T2 T2 - T 1

PI

PTS =

SOFTENING TEMPERATURE ( R & B) THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH A


STANDARD STEEL BALL PLACED ON THE LAYER OF BITUMEN KEPT IN A STANDARD RING PASSES THROUGH THE BITUMEN LAYER AND TOUCHES THE BOTTOM PLATE KEPT AT A DISTANCE OF 2.54 CM, LIQUID BATH IS HEATING MEDIUM. WATER FOR SOFTENING POINT BELOW 80CGLYCERINE - FOR SOFTENING POINT ABOVE 80C

SIGNIFICANCE: TO DETERMINE CONSISTENCY OF BITUMEN SIGNIFIES THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH BLEEDING OF BITUMINOUS ROAD SURFACING WILL OCCUR GREAT SIGNIFICANCE IN INDIA DUE TO EXTREME CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

VISCOSITY AT 60C AND 135C GRADE OF CUTBACK BITUMEN IS DESIGNATED BY ITS VISCOSITY VALUE HELPS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIFICATIONS OF BITUMEN VISCOSITY TEMPERATURE RELATIONSHIP RHEOLOGY OF BITUMEN

VISCOSITY AT 60C FOR ORIGINAL BITUMEN AND AGED BITUMEN HELPS

TO PREDICT AGING RESISTANCE,


DEFORMATION A HIGH TEMPERATURE AND FATIGUE CRACKING

THE MINIMUM VALUE OF VISCOSITY S 90 - 800 POISE S 65 - 1600 POISE TO CONTROL EXCESSIVE RUTTING AT HIGH TEMPERATURE S 35 - 3200 POISE PEN. VIS. NUMBER (PVN)

PVN = -1.5 [L LOG (135)]/(L M) L = 4.2580 0.79674 LOG PEN 25C M= 3.4628 0.61094 LOG PEN 25C VISCOSITY AT 135C AND PEN. AT 25C PVN 0 TO 1.5 TO 0 PREVENT THERMAL CRACKING IN CASE OF MODIFIED BINDER, VISCOSITY DETERMINATION IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT

DUCTILITY MEASURED AS A DISTANCE IN CM TO WHICH A BRIQUETTE SPECIMEN OF BITUMEN WILL ELONGATE BEFORE IT BREAKS WHEN SPECIMEN IS PULLED APART AT SPECIFIED SPEED AND TEMPERATURE. SPEED 5 CM/MIN TEMPERATURE - 27C VALUE - +75 SIGNIFICANCE: QUALITY CHECK OF BITUMEN

LOW TEMPERATURE DUCTILITY (LTD) DUCTILITY BELOW 25C IT IS A MEASURE OF COHESIVENESS PROPERTY OF BITUMEN GRADE 80/100 60/70 50/60 40/50 ACTUAL TEST TEMP.(SHELL) 10C 13C 15C 17C

SIGNIFICANCE TO COMPARE THE BRITTLENESS OF TWO OR MORE BITUMINOUS BINDERS RELATIVE COHESIVENESS TO DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN BITUMEN OF SATISFACTORY QUALITY AND THOSE HAVING SUFFICIENT BINDING PERFORMANCE TO DETERMINE ELASTIC RECOVERY OF BINDER

FLASH AND FIRE POINT FLASH LOWEST TEMPERATURE AT WHICH TEST FLAME CAUSES THE VAPOUR FROM BITUMEN TO CATCH FIRE FOR A MOMENT IN THE FORM OF A FLASH HEATING RATE 5C /MIN FIRE - LOWEST TEMPERATURE AT WHICH TEST FLAME CAUSES BITUMEN TO IGNITE AND BURN AT LEAST FOR 5 SECONDS

SIGNIFICANCE

LIMIT OF SAFETY AND FIRE HAZARD


TEMPERATURE

THE SAFE OF HEATING OF BITUMEN IS


NORMALLY 50C BELOW THE FLASH

POINT
MINIMUM VALUE (175C FLASH POINT)

TO PASS A BITUMEN SAMPLE


CONSTRUCTION

THIN FILM OVEN TEST (TFOT) THIS TEST IS CARRIED OUT ON A THIN FILM OF BITUMEN AT 163C FOR 5.25 HRS. THE RESIDUE THUS OBTAINED IS TESTED FOR PENETRATION, SOFTENING POINT AND ELASTIC RECOVERY. PERCENTAGE LOSS IN WEIGHT DURING TFOT IS ALSO MEASURED.

SIGNIFICANCE

THIS TEST IS HELPFUL FOR PREDICTING


THE AGING RESISTANCE OF BITUMEN AND PMBS.

SEPARATION TEST

Aluminum tubes diam 1 in. and length

5.5 inch.
Fill the PMB sample in the tube condition at 163 5 deg C. In an oven

for 24 hours 4 hours.

In the freezer at - 6.7 5 deg C. in a

vertical position for 4 hours to solidify


the sample.

Cut the tube into three equal portions


with spatula and hammer.

Next measure the softening point of top


and bottom portion.

THE ELASTIC RECOVERY TEST PROCEDURE IS GIVEN IN APPENDIX 2.

ELASTIC RECOVERY MEASURE THE DUCTILITY AT LOW TEMPERATURE (15 deg C) BY STRETCHING THE SPECIMEN UPTO 10 CM. AND CUTTING AT MID POINT THE BROKEN SPECIMEN IS LEFT AT LOW TEMPERATURE FOR ONE HOUR THE LENGTH OF THE SPECIMEN IS MEASURED AGAIN % RECOVERY IS CALCULATED

ELASTIC RECOVERY (%)


= Ductility length of specimen after 1 hr x 100 Ductility

= 10 5 x 100 10 = (5 x 100)/10= 50 %

MINIMUM EQUIPMENT REQUIRED TO CARRY OUT TESTS ON PMB IRC-SP:53 1. PENETROMETER

2. SOFTENING POINT APPARATUS


3. DUCTILITY TEST MACHINE

4. OVEN & REFIGERATOR FOR


PHASE SEPARATION TEST