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A Seminar on

CAMLESS ENGINES
Under the Guidance

Prof.Abdul Mannan
M.E

Mohammed Waseem Us.No. 3KB08ME062

Submitted by

Contents

Introduction Camless engines Working of conventional engines Conventional engine valves Camless engines overview Actuators Detailed view of Hydraulic Pendulum Operation of hydraulic pendulum Modifier Rod Advantages Disadvantages Conclusion

Introduction

CAMS Control the breathing channels (valves) of an IC engine Connected to camshaft which is operated by crankshaft Cams push open valves at proper time & guide their closure But they are inflexible except VTEC & VVT-I Engineers could not vary timing, lift & duration of valve opening infinitely

CAMLESS ENGINES Eliminated mechanical linkages Could provide infinite variation of valve parameters It can make engines clean, efficient & responsive

Working of conventional engines

The crankshaft turns camshaft which operates valves by mechanism as in figure Spring brings back valve to initial position Timing of engine valves depends on shape of cams

Conventional engine valves

Engineers must design cams in the development stages This design compromises b/n engine power & fuel efficiency Considering this compromise automobile companies brought variable valve timing mechanisms But is effects were limited

Camless engines overview

Main sensors Engine load sensor Exhaust gas sensor Valve position sensor Engine speed sensor

SENSORS

ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT

ACTUATORS

Sensors sense parameters & send signals to ECU ECU contains microprocessors with associated software This ECU controls the actuators to work according to requirements

Actuators

It is a electro-hydraulic camless valve train (ECV) Uses elastic property of compressed hydraulic fluid which acts like a liquid spring, accelerates & decelerates the valves

Hydraulic pendulum

Involves conversion of PE to KE and back to PE with minimum energy loss During acceleration of valves PE is converted to KE During deceleration of valve energy of moving valve is returned to fluid

Detailed view of Hydraulic Pendulum

Operation of hydraulic pendulum

Lift, timing & duration of valve opening is varied by controlling solenoid valves This is done by ECU when signals are sent from the sensors

Advantages

Offers continuously variable & independent control of all aspects of valve motion - lift, operation duration, event of opening ECV system can control valve velocity, valve acceleration and deceleration

disadvantages

Opening & closing of valves requires some power Electrometrical-alternator Eelectrohydraulic-accumulator Current solenoids cannot run at high rpms,. Hidden cost of microprocessor & software controls.

Resultant Advantages

Better fuel economy- 7 to 10 % increase Higher torque & power- 10 to 15 % increase Lower exhaust emissions- EGR system is eliminated since EGR effect occurs on its own & thus reduces NOx emissions Reduction in size & weight

Conclusion
Even though some disadvantages are present, we can expect electrohydraulic & electromechanical valves to replace the conventional camshaft technology. The system employs the hydraulic pendulum principle, which contributes to low hydraulic energy consumption. The electro hydraulic valve train is integral with the cylinder head, which lowers the head height and

References
1] Michael M.Schechter and Michael B.Levin Camless Engine SAE paper 960581 [2] P. Kreuter, P. Heuser, and M. Schebitz, "Strategies to Impove SI-Engine Performance by Means of Variable Intake Lift, Timing and Duration", SAE paper 920449. [3] K. Hatano, k. Lida, H. Higashi, and S. Murata, Development of a New Multi-Mode Variable Valve Timing Engine,SAE

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