Project ??
“A project is a series of activities directed to accomplishment of a desired objective.”

Characteristic of a Project

A unique, one-time operational activity or effort Large number of interrelated activities Established to achieve specific objective Resources are limited Typically has its own Organisational structure

Needs leadership


Projects involving few activities, resources, constraints and inter-relationship can be visualized easily by the human mind and planned


. informal planning has to be substituted by formal planning.When a project crosses a certain threshold level of size and complexity.

.SCHEDULING In SCHEDULING according the to execution of project is detailed work sequence and this forms the basis of day to day action.

Scheduling Techniques In projects  Gantt chart Network Analysis CPM PERT .

 Gantt chart is a list of activities with the start and finish of each activity shown as a bar plotted to a time scale.GANTT CHART  A Gantt chart is a Bar chart. .  It represent Work Breakdown Structure ( WBS) of a project.


 Least complex means of reporting project progress.  Summary of ten’s of activities can be depicted by one bar.  Easy to change. .Reasons for Popularity  Easy to draw  Easy to understand  Senior executives likes to be briefed in a minimum possible time.

.Network analysis Network analysis is the general name given to certain specific techniques which can be used for the planning. management and control of projects.

.History    Developed in 1950’s CPM by DuPont for chemical plants PERT by U. Navy for Polaris missile CPM was developed by Du Pont and the emphasis was on the trade-off between the cost of the project and its overall completion time PERT was developed by the US Navy for the planning and control of the Polaris missile program and the emphasis was on completing the program in the shortest possible time.S.

Network Diagram Network diagram is a cluster diagram represents activity and event by arrow and nodes. . Event Is a mile stone marking the completion of one or more activities. Activity Is a task that must be performed.

CPM / PERT CPM Activity on Node Single time estimate No probabilities are considered Used in repetitive nature of job where time estimate can be predicted PERT Activity on Arrow Multiple time estimate Probabilities are considered Used in non-repetitive jobs where time estimates are uncertain. .

and arrows show precedence relationships Activity-on-arrow (AOA) Arrows represent activities and nodes are events for points in time Contd……….Network diagram…Terminology Arrows Nodes  An arrow leads from tail to head directionally  A node is represented by a circle Dummy Activity It indicates only precedence relationship & does not require any time Activity-on-Node (AON) Nodes represent activities. .

Network diagram…Terminology Critical Path It is the longest path on the Network Critical Activities All activities on the critical path Earliest Start Time (ES) Earliest time an activity can start Earliest Finish time (EF) Earliest time an activity can finish Latest Start Time (LS) Latest start time an activity can start without delaying critical path time Latest Finish time (LF) Latest finish time an activity can be completed without delaying critical path time Contd…….. .

.Network diagram…Terminology FLOAT It is the maximum amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the critical path. Float = LS-ES = LF-EF Crashing Reducing project time by deploying additional resources Crash time An amount of time as activity is reduced.

AOA Project Network for House Lay foundation 3 2 1 0 Dummy Build house Finish work 1 3 Design house and obtain financing 2 Order and receive materials 4 Select paint 3 1 1 6 Select carpet 1 7 5 AON Project Network for House Lay foundations Build house 2 2 Start 1 3 Design house and obtain financing 4 3 Finish work 7 1 5 1 6 1 Select carpet 18 3 1 Order and receive darla/smbs/vit Select paint materials .

Situations in network diagram A B A must finish before either B or C can start C A C B A B A C D B Dummy C both A and B must finish before C can start both A and B must finish before either of C or D can start A must finish before B can start both A and C must finish before D can start D .

Concurrent Activities Lay foundation 3 Lay foundation Dummy 2 1 Order material (b) Correct precedence relationship 0 2 3 2 Order material 4 (a) Incorrect precedence relationship .


d e .A Sample Set of Project Activities and Precedences Task a b c d e f g Predecessor --a b b c.

Sample AON Network STEP 1 .

Sample AON Network…. STEP 2 ..

A Completed Sample AON Network LAST STEP .

Sample AOA Network STEP 1 .

Sample AOA Network STEP 2 .

Completed Sample AOA Network .

Computer Software for Project Management  Microsoft Project (Microsoft Corp.)  PowerProject (ASTA Development Inc.)  Primavera Project Planner (Primavera)  Project Scheduler (Scitor Corp.) .)  MacProject (Claris Corp.)  Project Workbench (ABT Corp.


everybody were falling with laughter except Santa. "Why the hell are you laughing without hearing the joke?" Santa said laughing and giggling. he put the condition that whoever tells a joke that makes every single person laugh should be left unharmed and alive. this boss was fond of jokes. the boss shot poor Banta. So. Santa was laughing madly... "Oh! How funny Banta's joke was!“ . The boss asked him. but still Santa was quite as a statue.. So the boss shot him. Again everybody laughed including the boss & his robbers." and when he was finished.... Everyone was puzzled. So according to the vow. Banta started telling the funniest joke he had ever heard.Once Santa & Banta were travelling along with their friends Monty & Jaggi. As he opened his mouth to tell the joke. Banta and their friends in the middle of the forest where their boss was residing. their car was attacked by robbers. it was the turn of Monty. The robbers blasted the car and took Santa. Now. He also told the best joke he had ever heard. On a road surrounded by forests on both sides.. "One day. but if one single person doesn't laugh then the joke-teller would be shot to death. Then came Jaggi.. Santa suddenly burst into laughter. Santa & his friends were pulled out of the car. Now.

time duration & cost is estimated WBS reflects true Project Completion Status . At this level work is assigned .WORK BREAK DOWN SCHEDULE WBS represents systematic and logical breakdown of Project WBS is a task oriented family tree Lowest level of WBS is Work Package.

WBS: STRUCTURE Level 1 The top-most level of WBS is single task which is the project Level 2 This depends on the type of the project Number of WBS Levels Too many levels make the control and execution of project difficult Too few levels will not allow proper assignments and control. Decompose the task upto Work Package level MPCS .


PERT A 3/5/9 Task 1 B 4/5/12 Task 2 C 7/9/15 Task 3 D Pessimistic time :9 +12+15 = 36 days Optimistic time :3+4+7 =14 days Most likely time : (3+4*5 +9)/6+(4+4*5+12)/6 + (7+4*9+15)/6 = 21 days CPM A 5 Task 1 B 5 Task 2 C 9 Task 3 D Time Required : 5 +5+9 = 19 days .

d e .Draw Network Diagram for below mentioned activities Task a b c d e f g Predecessor --a b b c.

Musharraf must have tried to kiss her in the tunnel. Jayalalitha and Vajpayee are sitting there looking confused. Very proper that she slapped him. Madhuri is thinking: -Musharaf must have moved to kiss me. The train suddenly goes thru a tunnel and it gets completely dark. and kissed Jayalalitha instead and got slapped. . Vajpayee is thinking: -If this train goes through another tunnel.Vajpayee. Jayalalitha is thinking: -These Pakistanis are all crazy after Madhuri. All of them remain diplomatic and nobody says anything. Musharraf is thinking: -Damn it. Madhuri Dixit and Jayalalitha are travelling in a train.. Vajpayee must have tried to kiss Madhuri. she thought it was me and slapped me. The train comes out of the tunnel. I could make another kissing sound and slap Musharraf again . Musharraf is bent over holding his face. which is red from an apparent slap. Musharraf. Suddenly there is a kissing sound and then a slap..

The driver tells him "Hum jab gaanv me pahuncha to dekha kuchh log ped ke niche baithe hain. Tum unko kya bola tha?" The driver replies "Hum kaha ki hum Laloo Yadav ka driver hoon aur hum sooar ka bachcha ko maar diya ho . Jub hum unko bataya ki kya hua hai. Par hum dekha ki sare log paisa jama kar rahe hain. tells the chauffeur to go find the owner of the piglet so that he can pay the damages. when all of a sudden a piglet jumps out in front of the car. The driver is gone for two hours and when he comes back. Laloo. upset. he has a bag full of money.“ Laloo says "Sasoor ka natee. The piglet dies on the spot. Laloo wants to know what happened.Laloo Yadav's car is driving along a back country road on the way back to Patna. and a wondering look on his face. Humko laga ki aaj to hamari pitayee hogee. Theek theek batao. Par un logo ne saara paisa hamein de diya. tab sare log jama ho gaye. Hum socha ki ye sara piasa wo janvar ke malik ke liye hai.

This missile was tested on 7th Jan 1960 .The Polaris missile was a two-stage solid-fuel nucleararmed submarine launched ballistic missile (SLBM) built for the US Navy.

A submarine is a Ship capable of independent operation below the surface of the water .

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