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2.

7 Analysing the coordination between the verve system and endocrine system

Both the nervous system and the endocrine system are importance in performing body activities.

Both the nervous system and the endocrine system are to ensure body functions such as physical, chemical and physiological response occur at their optimum level.
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Both the nervous system and the endocrine system are importance in performing body activities.

Both the nervous system and the endocrine system are to ensure body functions such as physical, chemical and physiological response occur at their optimum level.
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Light from the snake is sent into eyes

Stimulus

Eyes

Sense organ
Brain interpret the information the object is dangerous

Generate impulse

Central nervous system


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Central nervous system

Adrenal gland

Muscle

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adrenal gland

Heart

Liver

Lungs

Heartbeat increases

Glycogen glucose

Breathing increases

rate

More blood (glucose and oxygen) is sent to the muscle

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Activity 4
Complete the differences between nervous system and hormonal system based on a) - g)

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2.7.3 Give reasons the importance of coordination between the nervous system and the endocrine system in response to stimulus Nervous system in the body can respond to the stimuli. These responds are the result of the reactions and hormones regulate functioning of specific tissues and organs on body process.
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2.8 The Effects of the Drug abuse on the body coordination and health

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Effect of heroin

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Vocabulary
Drug any chemical substances that change the functions of the body. They act on the nervous system by altering the movement of nerve impulses along the neurones. Drug abuse to use drugs excessively or in ways that will harm our body

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Drugs
are chemical substances that change the functions of the body.

They act on the nervous system by altering the movement of nerve impulses along the neurones. Also affect the synapses between the neurones.
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Drugs
Long term usage of drugs will cause someone to rely (bergantung) physically and psychologically on drugs

This people will become addicted to the drugs.


drugs can be swallowed, injected into a vein, inhaled or applied onto skin.
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Types of drugs

Example of drugs

Effects of drug abuse

Depressants Stimulants
Hallucinogens

Narcotics Inhalants

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Effects of drugs
1. Depressants Tranquilisers, barbiturates E1: Delay reaction towards stimuli E2: decrease stress E3: help people to calm down
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Barbiturates

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Tranquiliser

Benzodiazepines
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Effects of drugs
2. Stimulants amphetamines, caffeine, cocaine E1: increase metabolic rate E2: stay awake or active

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Cocaine

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Amphetamines

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Ecstasy

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Effects of drugs
3. Hallucinogens

cannabis, marijuana (ganja), LSD E1: Hallucination

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Marijuana (ganja)

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LSD

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Effects of drugs
4. Narcotics

heroin, morphine, codeine


E1: relieve pain E2: induce sleep
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Heroin

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Effects of drugs
Inhalants

Cleaning solvents, glue, paint thinners, aerosol sprays


E1: hallucinations and depression

E2: damage to brain, lungs, kidneys, liver and other parts of the body.
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Cough syrup

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Organic solvents

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Drug abuse
To use drugs excessively (berlebihan) or in ways that will harm our body

Illegal drugs such as marijuana and heroin produce serious harmful effects on the body even when taken in small amounts
Medical drugs can also be harmful if taken excessively.
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Drug abuse
Stimulants, depressants and narcotics all have medical uses.

However, they also have great potential for being abused.

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Effects of drug abuse on body coordination


Drug abuse can cause depression (penekanan), unhappiness, panic, hopelessness, confused thoughts and great fear.
Long periods of depression may lead to mental disorder or illness.

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Effects of drug abuse on body coordination

Stimulants drugs speed up the processes of the central nervous system. The brain needs to rest and keeping it active for longer than usual will damage it. Hallucinogens (khayalan). causes hallucination

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Effects of drug abuse on body coordination


People who hallucinate see or hear things that are not really there.

This may cause them to carry out activities which are harmful to themselves and others.

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Effects of drug abuse on health


Addiction is the condition in which a drug abuser is dependant on repeated doses of drugs for the comfort of body and minds

Drugs addicts may die from an overdose of drugs.

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Effects of drug abuse on health


In the absence of drugs in the body, drug addicts will show withdrawal symptoms such as yawning, profuse sweating, restlessness, fever, uncontrollable shivering, aching bones and joints, abdominal pains, headaches, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea.

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Effects of drug abuse on health


Drugs which are injected into the body can cause one major risk to the user.

He may contract AIDS when he shares injection needless that are contaminated with the AIDS virus

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Effects of drug abuse on health


Drug addicts' physical appearance is also affected.

They often look pale and thin because they do not eat well. Some of them become lethargic, irritable and aggressive.
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1. Fill in the spaces with suitable drugs

Opium
Latex from poppy flower

Morphine
A brown coloured drug

Heroin
A white or brown coloured drug

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2. List 4 effects of heroin abuse

a) Watery eyes and nose b) Loss of appetite c) Addiction to the drug d) Loss of body weight e) Trembling
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I will not take drugs because


Drugs are dangerous and cause death

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2.9 Effects of Alcohol

Alcohol
Alcoholic drinks contain ethanol which is a type of alcohol Example of alcoholic drinks are beer, wine, whisky and champagne.

1. Fuel

2. Cosmetics 3. Solvent Uses of alcohol

6. Alcoholic beverages

5. Artificial food flavoring

4. Medicine

1. Fuel
Alcohol can be used as fuel because it produces a soot free combustion and does not pollute the environment. Alcohol can be used as combustion fuel in oil lamps. Alcohol is used as vehicle fuel in Brazil

2. Cosmetics
Alcohol is used to make cosmetics such as perfume, shaving lotion, nail varnish and skin moisturiser.

3. Solvent
Alcohol is used as a solvent for varnish and printing ink.

4. Medicine
Alcohol is used to dissolve iodine solid to prepare iodine solution (antiseptic) to apply on wounds. Alcohol is used to kill microorganisms before an injection is given. Cough mixture (liquid) contains ethanol.

5. Artificial food flavouring

Ester is used to produce artificial flavouring such as orange and strawberry in foods like ice cream.

6. Alcoholic beverages
Alcohol (ethanol) is used to make alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine.

The effects of alcohol on health


Alcohol in alcoholic drinks can affect the functioning of the brain and the nervous system.

Effects of excessive consumption of Alcohol on body coordination


Alcohol in alcoholic drinks slows down the transmission of impulses. Its slow down brain activities which will lead to misjudgment, a total loss of self control, temporary loss of memory and delaying reaction time.

Effects of alcohol on the brain


Effects on cerebrum

Effects on cerebellum

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Effects on cerebrum
Disturbs ones thinking and voluntary actions Sight and hearing senses deteriorate

Effects on cerebellum
Upsets muscle coordination, thus affecting the bodys balance

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Effects of alcohol on the nervous system and bodys organ

Effects on the liver


Damages liver cells and causes the liver to harden. This condition can cause liver cirrhosis and hepatitis

Effects on the kidney


Over worked, producing more waste

Effects on skin
Skin arteries expand and cause great loss of heat from the body. Drinkers face blusher.

Effects on the nervous system


Slows down transfer of nerve impulse Drinkers reaction towards stimuli slows down and becomes less sensitive. They usually feel drowsy.

Effects on bladder (pundi kencing)


Over worked, more frequent urinating.

Effects on stomach (perut)


Corrodes stomach surface, causing gastritis. If this condition persists, it could lead to ulcers.

Effects on heart (jantung)


Heart rate increased, blood pressure raised, heart rhythm disturbed.

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Effects of alcohol on the nervous system and bodys organ


Pregnant women who consume alcoholic drinks may give birth to babies with low birth weight, physical and mental defects.

Importance of avoiding excessive consumption of alcohol


1. Have a better health 2. Be free from addition 3. Prevent accidents
4. Overcome family and social problems

Mind ? What is mind??

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2.10 Importance of a sound and healthy Mind


Definition of mind (minda) : the ability of brain to think (berfikir) and reason (menaakul) - Closely related to someones emotions and behaviour.

The Mind
The mind cannot be seen. It is the part of a person that enables him or her to think, know, remember, feel and react to things.

The Mind
The factors that affect the mind are: - hormonal imbalanced - drug abuse - excessive consumption of alcohol - Mental stress - Brain injury

The mind can also be influenced by ones physical and mental health, emotions, spiritual health, social activities, food and genetic background.

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Effects of hormonal imbalance on the mind


Hormonal imbalance or a lack of hormonal coordination can disturb the calm thoughts and emotions of a person and cause a person to become frightened and over anxious.

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Effects of substance abuse on the mind


Excessive consumption of alcohol can affect our brain and the proper functioning of the nervous system. Drug abuse can also affect the mind. Through drug abuse, the mind of a drug addict becomes affected and this change his or her thoughts, attitudes and behaviour. The drug addict becomes irresponsible, irrational and lazy. 75

Effects of mental stress on the mind


Mental stress such as mental torture, sadness, long hours of work and insufficient rest will affect the mind. This causes a person to be incapable of thinking logically, making good judgements and solving problems.

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Effects of brain injury on the mind


Brain injury can cause the mind to be unable to carry out its usual functions. Injury to different parts of the brain will result in different incapabilities.

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Activity: Give 3 positive attitudes from the picture

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Be morally good Think rationally Responsible Loving Independent

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