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Bunker & Thorpe… VICKNESWARAN A/L NAKAR SALAPAN JABATAN PJK INSTITUT PENDIDIKAN GURU MALAYSIA KAMPUS KENT THE CURRICULUM MODEL by David Bunker and Rod Thorpe(1982)  Mempertikaikan bahawa, mengajar kemahiran individu sebelum mengajar permainan TIDAK membawa kepada kejayaan, pengetahuan atau keupayaan kapasiti untuk membuat keputusan.  Mereka berpendapat bahawa pelajar PERLU memahami kerelevanan kemahiran yang terkandung dalam sesuatu permainan sebelum mereka belajar kemahiran spesifik yang berkaitan. Model Kurikulum ini memberikan:  Game Form: A simplified version of the adult game in accordance with age and experience.  Versi mudah permainan dewasa yang disesuaikan mengikut umur dan pengalaman  Game Appreciation: The rules of the game create the form "the shape" of the game. Altering the rules will determine the "tactics to be employed." Peraturan permainan akan membentuk “gaya” permainan tersebut dimainkan. Perubahan yang dilakukan dalam peraturan akan menyebabkan “taktik permainan diubah”   Tactical Awareness: Learning how to use the rules to gain advantage over opponents or to limit advantage gained by opponents.  Belajar bagaimana peraturan boleh digunakan demi memperolihi kelebihan ke atas pihak lawan atau mengurangkan kelebihan yang telah diperolihi oleh pihak lawan  Decision Making: After learning tactics, children are now ready to make appropriate decisions regarding "what to do" and "when to do it." Selepas mempelajari taktik, pelajar bersedia untuk membuat keputusan yang tertentu berkaitan dengan “apa yang perlu dibuat” dan “bila ianya perlu dibuat”   Skill Execution: Now that the children understand "what" and "when" they are ready to work on "how" to perform the individual skills. Sekarang pelajar telah memahami “apa” dan “bila” maka mereka bersedia untuk “bagaimana” kemahiran individu dipamirkan   Performance: Students should be measured on “appropriateness of response” as well as “efficiency of technique” Pelajar sekarang boleh dinilai berdasarkan “ketepatan respon” serta “kecekapan teknik”   Significant Information: Teaching this sequential manner will aid many more children “experience some of the satisfaction of a skillful player”.  Mengajar berdasarkan urutan ini akan membantu ramai kanak-kanak “merasa kepuasan pemain berkemahiran tinggi”.  Conclusion: Bunker and Thorpe Conclude that their Curriculum model provides a "theoretical base" and "temporal sequences" for game teaching. B&T membuat kesimpulan bahawa model kurikulum mereka mampu menyediakan “asas teori” dan “urutan pemahaman” dalam pengajaran permainan  1.  GAME The lesson always commences with a game. The students are presented with a game which will probably involve small numbers of players, modified playing surface area and modified equipment. It is important that the students are capable, with guidance, of understanding the particular game form and are capable of playing it. They are guided to recognise the unique problems to be solved in playing the game. 2. GAME APPRECIATION  From the outset the students should understand the rules of the game being played. The rules should be simplified to ensure this. The imposition of certain rules will regulate the skill level and the tactics to be employed. 3. TACTICAL AWARENESS  Students are introduced to the tactics of the game through the gradual introduction of movement principles, based on simple ideas of space and time. By investigating and experimenting with these ideas in simple games the students are encouraged to progress to more advanced situations. 4. MAKING APPROPRIATE DECISIONS   Proficient games players take only fractions of a second to make decisions and they would see no value in distinguishing between the „what?‟ and the „how?‟. In the understanding approach the teacher separates the questions of „what to do?‟ and „how to do it?‟ to enable the student to recognise and attribute shortcomings in decision-making. „What to do?‟ In deciding what to do each situation has to be assessed and thus the ability to recognise cues and predict possible outcomes is important. „How to do it?‟ Having decided what to do the player then has to make a decision as to what is the best way to do it. he/she has to make the most appropriate response. 5. SKILL EXECUTION  In the model skill execution is used to describe the actual production of the required movement, as envisaged by the teacher. The model must be seen in the context of the learner and must recognise the learner‟s limitations. The execution of the correct skill becomes important only after the learner sees the need for that particular kind of skill. When the student is ready for these skills technical instruction is given but it is always at a level commensurate with the student‟s current ability level. 6. PERFORMANCE  This is the observed outcome of the previous processes measured against criteria that are independent of the learner. It should be a measure of appropriate response as well as efficiency of technique. The teacher helps the student in deciding whether a performance is correct or incorrect and in making decisions about how to improve it. 7. GAME  The sequential aspects of the model are critical. Satisfactory completion of the stages as outlined will necessitate modification of the game leading to a reappraisal of the requirements of the new game. The cycle begins again. Model Bunker & Thorpe -Teaching Games for Understanding [TGfU] PENGENALAN  TGfU dihasilkan oleh Bunker and Thorpe pada tahun 1982 untuk pelajar-pelajar sekolah menengah  TGfU merupakan satu model pendidikan yang menekankan:  Pemahaman yang menyeluruh pada setiap permainan  Meningkatkan tahap aktiviti fizikal  Menjadikan kelas pendidikan jasmani sebagai tempat yang sesuai untuk persaingan, motivasi serta bersuka ria  Digunakan secara meluas dalam kejurulatihan dan pendidikan jasmani sehingga masa kini FAKTOR-FAKTOR  Terdapat beberapa isu timbul di kalangan pelajar-pelajar Britain pada 1980-an yang mendorong Bunker and Thorpe untuk mengkaji TGfU:  Pencapaian dalam permainan adalah sikit dan kurang memuaskan  Kekurangan pengetahuan tentang permainan  Lemah dalam kemahiran asas dan kurang berupaya dalam membuat keputusan  Terlalu mengharapkan jurulatih atau guru untuk membuat keputusan  Kadar perkembangan dalam permainan adalah lambat dan tidak menonjolkan MATLAMAT    Matlamat utama TGfU adalah untuk memperkembangkan kemahiran seseorang pelajar dalam menyelesaikan masalah dan membuat keputusan Menurut falsafah TGfU, pelajar atau pemain bukan sahaja perlu tahu bagaimana untuk menjayakan sesuatu permainan tetapi adalah lebih penting untuk belajar membuat keputusan yang sesuai ketika permainan berjalan Model TGfU juga menggalakkan pelajar untuk melibatkan diri dalam pelbagai permainan PERKEMBANGAN  Selepas kajian Bunker dan Thorpe, falsafah dan teori dalam TGfU masih diubahsuai dan diperkembang dari semasa ke semasa  Secara mendalam dan tepat, TGfU adalah lebih pratikal dan mudah diaplikasikan dalam permainan bola  Pada tahun 2004, Webb and Pearson telah mengkategorikan permainan kepada empat kategori utama:  Target  Striking / Fielding  Net / Wall  Invasion KATEGORI PERMAINAN  Target  Menempatkan objek pada sasaran atau mendekati sasaran untuk mendapat mata  Contoh: bowling, archery, golf Striking / Fielding  Perlawanan yang melibatkan dua pihak: pasukan striking dan pasukan fielding  Mengumpul mata melalui larian yang selamat dan berjaya selepas pukulan dalam masa atau pusingan yang ditetapkan  Contoh: baseball , softball, cricket   Net / Wall  Permainan dimainkan antara jaring atau atas dinding  Mengumpul mata melalui menghantar objek ke gelanggang pihak lawan dengan syarat objek tersebut tidak dapat dihantar balik dalam kawasan gelanggang  Contoh: badminton, squash, table tennis  Invasion / Serangan  Permainan berpasukan  Dalam jangka masa yang tertentu, masuk ke dalam kawasan pihak lawan dan mengumpul mata  Contoh: soccer, basketball, handball TUJUAN MENGKATEGORIKAN PERMAINAN  Setiap permainan dalam kategori yang tersebut mempunyai sifat dan peraturan yang mirip atau seiras  TGfU bertujuan untuk menggalakkan palajar-pelajar melibatkan diri dalam pelbagai permainan  Setelah mempelajari salah satu permainan dalam satu kategori, pelajar akan memperoleh pengetahuan asas atas peraturan, kemahiran dan taktik dalam kategori tersebut  Oleh itu, pelajar akan bermampu untuk menyertai permainan lain dalam kategori yang sama  Contoh: Pelajar yang telah belajar bola keranjang atau bola sepak dapat main bola baling Meaning of Traditional Play  The traditional model of teaching games is based on the acquisition of discrete sports skills and techniques which are then developed in the context of specific games. The teaching of skill and technique takes second place to the development of tactical awareness through an exploration of principles of play. We must recognize that the majority of students will not have the capacity to become highly skilled players, but they will all have the capacity to develop sufficient skill to play games at an enjoyable level.    „Much of the pleasure involved in games playing lies in making correct decisions in the light of tactical awareness‟ (Thorpe and Bunker, 1982). The teacher‟s task is to create the situation where the student seeks to develop skills which are required for him/her to perform in a given situation. Skill acquisition is seen in the context of the learner and the game situation - it arises from the game. The main focus of the understanding approach to games teaching is on tactical awareness and decision making rather than on the development of skill and technique. This provides the opportunity for all the students, irrespective of physical ability, to play a central role in the games lesson, thus enhancing self-esteem and a sense of personal fulfillment.     Students are encouraged to play the game at their own technical level—ensuring a level of success and enjoyment for all. Thorpe and Bunker (1989) explain how games teaching strategies of sampling, modification through representation (a simplified game), modification through exaggeration (eg., a long and thin area of play in net/wall games) ) and games focused on certain tactical complexity, allow children to become active decision makers in their own learning. In The Teaching Games For Understanding (TGFU), learners recursively evaluate and develop their own performance within game playing situations that gradually, under the guidance of the teacher, evolve towards the sophisticated adult games.   Teaching Modified Games Modified Games Are games that look like the actual sport on which they are based, but adapted to suit the players’ age, size, ability, skill and experience. (Hillary Commission of New Zealand) Why Use Modified Games? - Enable varieties - Promote learning progressions - Enable greater participation - Promote fun way of learning - Overcome shortage of equipment Modifying Individual Sports Examples: Track & Field: Expanded take-off board; Lower hurdles; use line instead of circle for shot/discus. Swimming: Use of fins; start race in water. Gymnastics: Use long bench for balance beam. Modifying Dual Sports Racquet games examples: Move in serve lines. Short-handled racquets. Short wide / longer –narrow court. Different (i.e., slower moving) ball Shorter-handled racquets Modifying Team Sports Sample modifications for Invasion Games Equipment Use larger balls Use slower balls. Use shorter handles on striking implements (e.g., hockey sticks) Gaining possession Do not allow direct stealing of a ball from one player by another. Increase the ways in which a player can actually gain possession Progression Allow players some steps in games where none is allowed (e.g. Frisbee). Increase the time an individual player can have possession without being penalized or in which they must make a pass. Reduce the pressure on a player as she or he attempts to put the ball in play after an outof-bounds play or a penalty (e.g. do not allow players to stand too close to the sideline). Scoring Make a goal larger. Make a goal lower. Consider including the opportunity of scoring by progressing the ball (or object) across an end-line rather than into a specific goal. Modifying Team Sports Sample modifications for Batting /Fielding Games Equipment Use larger balls Batting Hit from a tee rather than a pitch Fielding Have larger targets to hit (e.g. cricket) Base running Limit the stealing options Use shorter handled bats Allow the batter to receive a pitch/bowl from his or Reduce the her own team size of the sector ** Have the duty team to provide a pitcher, aiming to present batter friendly deliveries Including Students w. Disabilities Modify rules to equalize competition Allow a student to kick or hit a stationary ball where it might otherwise be pitched. In volleyball allow them to catch the ball and throw it and/or allow the ball to bounce. Allow certain length of time to get to base or the goal Involved the disabled student in the decision making concerning rule modifications. Decrease distances Move bases closer together Allow students to be closer to the target/goal/net In volleyball or badminton allow them to serve from mid court Provide more chances to score 3 foul shots instead of two; four strikes instead of three; ten arrows instead of six etc Including Students w. Disabilities Analyze positions according to the abilities of handicapped students Allow them to be goalie, pitcher, or other position, which entails limited mobility A student with a heart problem may be goalie in soccer, or a pitcher in softball A one-leg amputee may be a pitcher or first baseman Provide adapted equipment that makes performance easier larger bat, larger, lighter and/or softer ball larger, flat bases, goals, baskets etc. Shorter racquet shaft or larger racquet face Strategies For Modifying Games CHANG E IT C : Coaching Style (demo ? Discovery?) H : How To Score A : Area ( Large / Small ) N : Number (eg. 3 on 4) G : Game Rules E : Equipment (types & size) I : Inclusion T : Time Thank you for your attention…