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Semantic diffrential scale

The scale construction consists of the following steps: 1) Write a large number of statements that concern the particular attitudinal object being investigated. For instance one may be looking at the role of voluntary agencies in providing health services in rural areas. Most of these statements should either be moderately positive or moderately negative. Natural items are generally avoided in these scales. The items should be evenly divided between positive and negative statements.

3. The particular values may differ from one researcher to another. • 3) Assign scale values to the degrees of agreement or disagreement with each item. 2.• 2) Administer the poll of statements on a group of respondents who are similar to the population on whom the scale will be used. 4. Sometimes one may adopt the values 1. 0. if we want to study the attitude of housewives the pool should be administered on a group of housewives with similar background to our final population. For negative items the directions should be reversed. 5 and sometimes +2. . -2. For example. +1. -1.

. The distribution of total scores is then used to refine the list of items. This step is called item analysis.• 4) Calculate a total attitude score for each respondent using the same scaling procedure. • 5) Items analysis : Analyze the responses and select for the scale those items which most clearly differentiate between the highest and lowest scores. This can be done by dividing the respondents into the high and the low scoring categories. The high scorers can be assumed to be with favorable attitudes and the low scorers can be taken as having the least favorable attitudes.

. They are easy to construct. The posit ive and negative ones are mixed. The summated scales have certain advantages. are highly reliable and can be adapted to the measurement of many different kinds of attitudes.• The statements remaining in the pruned list are randomly ordered on the scale form. • The scale is now administered on the respondents who are asked to indicate their degree of agreement with the item. A respondent’s score is generated as the sum of his scores on each statement.

are used when researchers desire interval data where the data can be arranged in order and measured. • Semantic differential scales measure a person's attitude toward concepts and may be useful in situations with different age groups or cultures because they are easy for the researcher to construct. easy for the respondent's to use and provide reliable quantitative data . developed by Charles Osgood (1957).ADVANTAGES • Semantic differential scales.

and customer satisfaction surveys . and personality measurement. operations research. Semantic differential has been applied to marketing. employee surveys. An example of its use is to evaluate products and services.• .