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For Anna University third yr mechanical students- this may be useful for practice and revision. Ramakrishnan V

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1.Write down the relation between static temperature, stagnation temperature and mach number for the case of an isentropic flow.

2.A plane travels at a velocity of 1600 kmph at an altitude of 8000 m. Find the mach angle and mach number.

Air conditioning system. Exhaust gas pipes . Combustion Chamber pipes.3. Fanno Flow: Aircraft propulsion system.Give one example each for Fanno flow and Rayleigh flow. Chemical Process plants Rayleigh Flow: Regenerator. Intercooler.

S.4. 1 2 Fanno Flow Friction is present No Heat transfer Rayleigh Flow No Friction Heat transfer is present .No.Differentiate between Fanno flow and Rayleigh flow.

Show a normal shock in h-s diagram with the help of Rayleigh line and Fanno line. .5.

6. .Write the Rankine Hugoniot equation.

List the different types of Jet engines.7. Pulse jet engines. Turbo jet. . Ram jet.

.8. When aircraft flies at very high velocity. Kinetic energy is converted to pressure energy by induction of shock in supersonic diffuser. incoming air is compressed to very high pressure without external work.Define the principle of Ram jet engine. This principle is called Ram Effect.

Nitrogen. air are used for pressurization.9.What are the types of propellant feed systems? Gas Pressure Feed System. to injector to injector Gas Oxidiser Fuel . and Pump Feed system Gas Pressure Feed System: An inert gas is separately carried at a pressure greater than the injection pressure. Inert gas pressure feed the fuel and oxidizer into the combustion chamber. Helium. It exerts the required pressure on the propellant tank. O HP inert gas Shut off valve PRV F Pump feed System: Both fuel and oxidizer pumps are used to feed into the combustion chamber and these are driven by a single turbine.

4. 2.Based on size and range: Short range.What are the classifications of a Rocket? 1.Based on propellant used: Liquid. Solid. Electrical.10. Based on number of stages: Single stage. Solar rockets. hybrid propellant rocket. 3. 5. Missile. Weather rockets. Nuclear. Space Craft. Long range and Medium range rockets. . Multiple stage rockets. Military.Based on application: Spy.Based on energy source: Chemical.

Derive the expression for velocity of sound in air. i.11. .a.

A jet fighter is flying at M=2. How much distance it would cover before the sonic boom is heard on the ground. ii. It is observed directly overheard at a height of 10 km.11.a. .5.

b. 11.i. .11. ii. Determine the mach number of an aircraft at which the velocity temperature of the air at the entry of engine equals static temperature.Derive the expression for compressibity in terms of mach number variation.b.

Show that the maximum entropy point occurs at M = 1 in Rayleigh line. .12.a.i.

a. stagnation pressure and temperature. Air enters a constant area duct at M1 =3. temperature. . P1 = 1 atm. and T1 = 310 K. and mach number at the exit. density. Inside the duct heat added per unit mass is 3x10 5 J/kg. Calculate the flow properties static pressure.12.ii.

.12. Show that the maximum enthalpy point occurs at M = 1 / √γ.b.i.

.b. A long pipe of 0. (d) distance of the section from the inlet and (e) mass flow rate of air.12. stagnation temperature 310 K and static pressure 0. Determine for a section at which the mach number reaches 1.5: (a) Static pressure and temperature.ii.3 m diameter has a mean coefficient of 0. Air enters the pipe at a mach number of 3.002. (c) velocity of air.507 bar. (b) stagnation pressure and temperature.

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a.13. Derive the Rankine Hugoniot ralation. .i.

Normal shock occurs at a test section X where AX/A1 = 0. Air at M = 2.a. .5.5 enters a convergent duct with an area ratio of A2/A1 = 0.6.13. Find the exit mach number and pressure ratio across the duct.ii.

i. . Substituting (2) and (3) in (1) and solving. Derive the Prandtl Meyer relation.13.b.

A gas (γ = 1.5 is to be isentropically expanded to 138 mbar. Determine the deflection angle. 350 K temperature and mach number 1. ii.3) at 345 mbar pressure. . final mach number and temperature of the gas.b.13.

What are the classifications of an aircraft propulsion engine? ii.14. turbo fan.i. . Classifications of aircraft propulsion engine: Turbo jet. Pulse jet engines. turbp prop. Ram jet. Explain with a neat sketch the operation of a turbojet engine.a.

Component 1 Diffuser Process Detail Increase pressure – transformation Increase pressure – work transfer Heat addedConstant pressure Increase velocity – work transfer Increase velocity – transformation Process reference [ i-1 ] [ i-1’ ] Adiabatic Isentropic [ 1-2 ] [ 1-2’ ] Isentropic [ 2-3’ ] Rayleigh [3-4’ ] Isentropic [ 4-e’ ] Isentropic Efficiency 2 Compressor 3 Combustor [ 2-3 ] 4 Turbine [ 3-4 ] 5 Nozzle [ 4-e ] .Performance of Turbo Jet Components S.No.

The isentropic enthalpy drop in the nozzle is 200 J/kg and nozzle efficiency is 90%.b. A turbojet propels an aircraft at a speed of 900 kmph while taking 3000 kg of air per minute.14. The combustion efficiency is 95%. propulsive power. propulsive efficiency. The air fuel ratio is 85. Calorific value of fuel is 42 MJ/kg. Calculate the thrust. specific fuel consumption. See next slide for answer . thermal efficiency.

27 .

The effective jet velocity of a rocket is 2700 m/s. thrust power and propulsive efficiency.15.i.a.6 kg/s. Calculate the thrust. . the forward flight velocity is 1350 m/s. ii. Propellant consumption rate is 78. Compare jet propulsion and rocket propulsion. Contains own oxygen supply for for combustion Jet consists of exhaust gases only No mechanical devices used. Jet propulsion Rocket propulsion Oxygen obtained from ambient air for combustion Jet consists of cold air and combustion products. Mechanical devices used.

i. Disadvantages of Solid Propellant Rockets: Difficult to control in emergency. Less frequent problems. Nozzle cooling and refuelling not possible. No feed system. State the advantages and disadvantages of solid propellant rockets. . Lighter in weight.15. Mass production at short notice is possible. Nozzle erosion occurs. Low specific impulse. Advantages of Solid Propellant Rockets: Simple in design. No moving parts. Thrust regulation and combustion regulation are difficult.b.

b.15. If the combustion chamber temperature is 2700 o C and pressure is 20 bar. ii. R = 248 J/kgK. γ = 1.3. Assume atmospheric pressure is 1 bar.3. What will be the thrust per unit area of exit and specific impulse. R = 248 J/kgK . A rocket nozzle has an exit area to throat area 3:1 with isentropic expansion. γ = 1.

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