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6

Prof Dr Muhammad Kamran EED., UET Lahore

Lecture. No.6-Contents

Fundamentals of Harmonics -Chapter 5 Voltage and current harmonics effect on system (From a research paper)

Harmonic distortion

Harmonic distortion is caused by nonlinear devices in the power system A nonlinear device is one in which the current is not proportional to the applied voltage Figure in next slide illustrates this concept by the case of a sinusoidal voltage applied to a simple nonlinear resistor in which the voltage and current vary according to the curve shown While the applied voltage is perfectly sinusoidal, the resulting current is distorted

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named after the great mathematician who discovered the concept .Basic concept of Fourier Series Next Figure illustrates that any periodic. it can be represented as a sum of pure sine waves in which the frequency of each sinusoid is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency of the distorted wave This multiple is called a harmonic of the fundamental. distorted waveform can be expressed as a sum of sinusoids When a waveform is identical from one cycle to the next. hence the name of this subject matter The sum of sinusoids is referred to as a Fourier series.

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the Fourier series concept is universally applied in analyzing harmonic problems The system can now be analyzed separately at each harmonic In addition. finding the system response of a sinusoid of each harmonic individually is much more straightforward compared to that with the entire distorted waveforms The outputs at each frequency are then combined to form a new Fourier series. from which the output waveform may be computed. if desired Often. only the magnitudes of the harmonics are of interest .Fourier Series (3) Because of the above property.

the Fourier series contains only odd harmonics This offers a further simplification for most power system studies because most common harmonic-producing devices look the same to both polarities .Fourier Series (4) When both the positive and negative half cycles of a waveform have identical shapes.

Even Harmonics The presence of even harmonics is often a clue that there is something wrong—either with the load equipment or with the transducer used to make the measurement There are notable exceptions to this such as half-wave rectifiers and arc furnaces when the arc is random .

as is the conventional practice. the short-circuit impedance between the source and the load) is remarkably linear .Linear and non linear components in power system If the power system is depicted as series and shunt elements.e.. loads) The series impedance of the power delivery system (i..e. the vast majority of the nonlinearities in the system are found in shunt elements (i.

also. the main sources of harmonic distortion will ultimately be end-user loads . the source of harmonics is the shunt branch (magnetizing impedance) of the common “T” model. the leakage impedance is linear Thus. In transformers.

Voltage ~ Current distortion It is common to hear that an adjustable-speed drive or an induction furnace can’t operate properly because of harmonics Generally. it could mean one of the following three things: The harmonic voltages are too great (the voltage too distorted) for the control to properly determine firing angles The harmonic currents are too great for the capacity of some device in the power supply system such as a transformer. and the machine must be operated at a lower than rated power The harmonic voltages are too great because the harmonic currents produced by the device are too great for the given system condition .

it is sufficient to treat these harmonic-producing loads simply as current sources . It is already discussed that nonlinear loads appear to be sources of harmonic current in shunt with and injecting harmonic currents into the power system For nearly all analyses.

assuming that the source bus is ultimately a pure sinusoid. there is a nonlinear load that draws a distorted current . series impedance of he power delivery system. although.Voltage ~ Current Figure shows voltage distortion is the result of distorted currents passing through the linear.

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less than 5 percent). The harmonic current passing through the impedance of the system cause a voltage drop for each harmonic This results in voltage harmonics appearing at the load bus The amount of voltage distortion depends on the impedance and the current Assuming the load bus distortion stays within reasonable limits (e.g.. . the amount of harmonic current produced by the load is generally constant.

Voltage and current harmonics (Research Paper) The influence of voltage and current harmonics on equipment connected to electrical supply systems can cause serious problems The most sensitive equipment for harmonics is asynchronous and synchronous motors. TV sets and electronic control devices and computers . ripple control receiver.

there are loads and devices in system containing non linear characteristics Advancement and wide application of adjustable speed drives. . electronic devices and microprocessors etc. The generators that produce the electric power which is almost sinusoid However.

We will consider the effect of voltage and current harmonics on many types of equipment ranging from synchronous machine to house hold appliances Several Elements in power system list can be analyzed independently We are seeking for criteria for evaluate harmonics effect on system .

There are following possibilities. like 5% of a single harmonic and 4% of each on two adjacent harmonics The device is sensitive to the arithmetic sum of all the harmonics . these harmonics should not exceed an established level. The device is sensitive to one or two adjacent harmonics.

Asynchronous Machine Influence of voltage and current manifested in the following way. is Calculations show that 10 to 20% system harmonics can be neglected Harmonics cause the (Possible Thesis Topic) oscillatory torque The harmonics of the supply voltage and current cause some supplementary losses in the machine .

since secondary frequencies are high . Primary I^R losses-The harmonic current contribute to total RMS input current Skin effect in primary conductors for small wire wound machines can be neglected but is considered when primary conductor depth is appreciable Secondary I^R--Skin effect in secondary conductors can not be neglected for all sizes of motors.

Skin effect Skin effect is a tendency for alternating current to flow mostly near the outer surface of a solid electrical conductor. compared with the resistance of the same wire at direct current ( DC ) and low AC frequencies . such as metal wire. at frequencies above the audio range The effect becomes more and more apparent as the frequency increases The main problem with skin effect is that it increases the effective resistance of a wire for AC at moderate to high frequencies.

This can save lives. The skin effect causes virtually all of the current to flow on the outside of the vehicle as it passes from cloud to ground .Skin Effect Skin effect can be reduced by using stranded rather than solid wire This increases the effective surface area of the wire for a given wire gauge Tinned wire should be avoided because tin has higher resistance than copper Skin effect occurs with brief pulses of current . for the same reasons it occurs at high AC frequencies. If you are caught in a thundershower. you can take refuge in a car or other metal vehicle and be relatively safe even if you suffer a direct hit.

capacitors. cable and switch gear . These losses occur at high frequency ***Assignment No2: Write effect of harmonics produced due to synchronous machines. Core losses due to harmonic main fluxes.

Electrical Meters A meter is designed and is adjusted. the increasing industrial application of electronic and high frequency equipment causing harmonic distortion in the load current has caused concern regarding the performance of the meters used to measure the energy required . to operate in circuits of standard frequency and voltage in with little or no waveform distortion exists These conditions are usually closely approximated in practical systems and the errors in energy measurement due to the approximations are negligible However. in practice.

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Voltage-and current-waveform distortion can result in inaccurate operation of induction-type meters Tests have shown that a wide variation in performance exists between different makes and even between production samples from the same manufacturer .

Harmonic voltages or currents will degrade the capability of a meter Fluxes produced by harmonics currents combine with fake fluxes of the same frequency that maybe present due to the imperfection in the meter element and produce secondary torques Typical responses for the degrading effect of harmonics of various phase angles and amplitudes in the voltage and current coils are shown in previous figure .

that the magnetic field and the driving torque are decreased.Effect of Harmonic voltages and currents on Accuracy This topic is addressed in three different ways. The magnetic fields of the voltage coil of a meter are not linear and contain some harmonic components due to compensation devices. It is believed that some additional torque will develop anyway. with negative error increasing with the frequency. even though there aren’t harmonics of voltage and current in the distribution network. These errors are negative. The meters do not measure the component of energy due to the DC. One can see from the fact that the inductance of the voltage coil is increased. The meters are frequency sensitive. .

like (Actual reading.Expected Reading)/Expected Reading .Negative error Gives value or reading less than actual Or if %age error is negative.

these negative errors are weak. Figure in next slide represents the result of measurements taken over different devices It shows. for example.Negative Errors However. an additional error less than 1% for a purely sinusoidal voltage and a 3rd order harmonic current of 20% A similar error is reached in the even less realistic case of a 10% harmonic of voltage simultaneously with a 10% harmonic of current .

and cycloconverters which are sensitive to the zero-crossing point of the voltage waveform can obviously be affected by harmonic distortion The effect on converters is to displace the natural commutation point In an article concerned with this problem it is written: “ The harmonics of voltage act upon the supply transformers.Electronic devices Electronic devices such as rectifiers. the waveform of the output voltage. and the auxiliary devices” . inverters. the devices of command and control. the characteristics of the output voltage.

Effect of Harmonic on Communication electronic converters Figure in next slide shows how the harmonics of the supply voltage displace the point of natural commutation of a converter The control apparatus of the thyristors should provide for a supplementary safety margin to account for this gab: .

it is necessary to provide for a larger reserve in order to avoid the commutation errors which could carry an internal short-circuit This limits the domain of the regulation . the firing angle should be longer than the angle that decreases the performance of the equipment In the case of service as an inverter. In case thyristors are used as rectifiers.

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Effect on Electronic control devices .

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