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Corticosteroids

Effects and Side Effects

.• Corticosteroids are 21 carbon compounds which are synthesized in adrenal cortical cells from cholestrol  Corticoids: - Mineralocorticoids(Aldosterone) Glucocorticoids (Hydrocortisone) Androgens (Testosterone) oCorticosteroids are synthesized under the influence of ACTH which is primarily synthesized from anterior pituitary.

Action : -Maintainence of fluid-electrolyte homeostasis -Cardiovascular and energy substrate homeostasis -Functional status of skeletal muscles and nervous system .

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Mineralocorticoids Adverse effects: Fluid retention and hypertension rise in blood pressure Edema Progressive Hypokalemia Alkalosis Worsening of congestive heart failure .

Glucocorticoids Effects : 1)Carbohydrate and Protein metabolism Glycogen Inhibition Increased Resistant deposition in liver of glucose utilisation by peripheral tissue glucose release from liver to insulin and amino acid breakdown uric acid excretion Proteolysis Increased .

2)Fat metabolism: Promote lipolysis of triglycerides of body fat Breakdown Re-distribution 3)Calcium metabolism : Decreased Increased formation of osteoid resorption of bones 4)Water excretion : Maintainance of normal glomerular filtration rate .

5)Cardiovascular system: Restrict capillary permeability tone of arterioles contractility role in development of hypertension Maintain Myocardial Permissive 6)Skeletal Muscles: Hypocorticism:diminished work capacity and weakness Hypercorticism->Hypokalemia .

7)Central Nervous System: Mild Euphoria Insomnia Anxiety Depression Lowers the seizure threshold the level of sensory perception Maintain .

Platelets and neutrophils lymphocyte.Basophil Increased Decrease .Eosinophils.8)Lymphoid tissue and blood cells: Enhances the rate of destruction of lymphoid cells number of RBCs.

9)Inflammatory responses: Reduction of increased capillary permeability. capillary proliferation. cellular infiltration. phagocytic activity. collagen deposition. local exudation. fibroblastic activity cardinal signs of inflammation are supressed The .

10)Immunological and allergic responses : Suppress all types of hypersensitization and allergic phenomenon of recruitment of leucocytes of cell mediated immunity Suppression Suppression Inhibition Inhibition of IL-1 release from macrophage of IL-2 formation and suppression of natural killer cells .

Adverse effects of Glucocorticoids: Cushing Fragile Habitus skin.Purple straie myopathy to infections wound healing Hyperglycemia Proximal Susceptibility Delayed Peptic ulceration Osteoporosis Post Sub-capsular cataract Retardation disturbances HPA axis Glaucoma Growth Fetal abnormalities Psychiatric Suppression .

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