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Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics - LCRZ Module

Agenda
   

Impedance Measurement Basics Measurement Discrepancies Measurement Techniques Error Compensation

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Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics - LCRZ Module

Impedance Definition
Impedance is the total opposition a device or circuit offers to the flow of a periodic current AC test signal (amplitude and frequency) Includes real and imaginary elements

G
R X B
Z=R+jX Z=R+jB

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Impedance Measurement Plane +j Inductive |Z| DUT Imaginary Axis O - Resistive Real Axis Capacitive Z = R + jX = |Z| O |Z| = R + X 2 2 -j H .LCRZ Module X .= ARCTAN( ) O R 4 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

Admittance Measurement Plane Y=1/Z +j Capacitive |Y| DUT Imaginary Axis O - Conductive Real Axis Inductive Y = G + jB = |Y| O |Y| = G + B 2 2 -j H .LCRZ Module B .= ARCTAN( ) O G 5 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

Agenda     Impedance Measurement Basics Measurement Discrepancies Measurement Techniques Error Compensation H 6 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .LCRZ Module .

231 uH 5.LCRZ Module .Which Value is Correct? Z Analyzer Q : 165 Q : 165 ? Q = 120 Q : 120 LCR meter L : 5.231 uH LCR meter ? L : 5.310 uH LCR meter 5.310 uH H 7 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

and Indicated Values Measurement Errors Circuit Mode (Translation Equations) H 8 .Measurement Discrepancy Reasons Component Dependency Factors True. Effective.

etc.) H 9 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics . voltage and current Environment (temperature.LCRZ Module .Measurement Discrepancy Reasons Component Dependency Factors Test signal frequency Test signal level DC bias. humidity.

Component Parasitics Complicate the Measurements H 10 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .LCRZ Module .

Real World Capacitor Model Includes Parasitics H 11 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .LCRZ Module .

Quality and Dissipation Factors Different from the Q associated with resonators and filters Energy stored Q= Energy lost = X s Rs The better the component. then R 0 Q OO 1 D= Q .LCRZ Module . mainly used for capacitors H 12 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

Frequency |X| XC = Capacitor Model 1 wC X L = wL Frequency 13 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .LCRZ Module H .Capacitor Reactance vs.

0 deg START 1 000 000.00 B MAX 100.000 Hz STOP 15 000 000.00 B MIN -100.Example Capacitor Resonance Impedance vs.2113 PHASE 659.000 Hz MAG 47.LCRZ Module H .0 deg MKR 6 320 000.015 mdeg m m A MIN 20.000 Hz 14 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics . Frequency B: 0 A: |Z| A MAX 50.

C Variations with Test Signal Level C vs AC Test Signal Level SMD Capacitors.LCRZ Module . Various dielectric constants K High K C Mid K Low K C/% 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 -20 0 50 100 C vs DC Voltage Bias Type I and II SMD Capacitors Type I NPO (low K) Type II X7R (high K) Vdc Vac H 15 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

LCRZ Module H .C vs. Temperature Type I and II SMD Capacitors C/% 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -60 -20 20 60 100 140 Type I NPO (low K) Type II X7R (high K) T/ C 16 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

DC Current Bias Level Power Inductors L/% 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 -20 0 50 100 Idc H 17 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .L vs.LCRZ Module .

Component Dependency Factors Test signal frequency Test signal level DC bias.) Component's current state Aging H 18 . voltage and current Environment ( temperature. etc. humidity.

LCRZ Module H .Which Value Do We Measure? TRUE EFFECTIVE INDICATED +/- % Instrument Test fixture Real world device 19 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

LCRZ Module .Measurement Set-Up Port Instrument Test Fixture Extension DUT x Rx + jX H 20 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

Sources of Measurement Errors Measurement technique inaccuracies Port Extension complex residuals Fixture residuals RFI and other noise DUT stray and lead parasitics H 21 .

LCRZ Module .Sources of Measurement Errors Technique Inaccuracies Complex Residuals Residuals Noise Parasitics Port Instrument Test Fixture Extension DUT Rx + jXx H 22 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

LCRZ Module .Actions for Limiting Measurement Errors Guarding Port Instrument Calibration Test Fixture Compensation Extension LOAD Compensation DUT x R x+ jX EShielding H 23 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

Cp. Cs. Q Rs DUT C s ? R p 24 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics . Rs or ESR. D. Measure ? Calculate ? Approximate ? I-V Method Measured Direct Calculations Model based Approximations I.LCRZ Module H Cp ..What Do Instruments. Rp. Lp.y 1 + 1 - Z= Z = Zo Ls . V V I Reflection Coefficient Method x..

Cp ? No L Capacitor Model H 25 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .Circuit Mode Requires Simplified Models Complete Capacitor Model Rs.LCRZ Module .Ls.Rp.

LCRZ Module . who wins ? No L Capacitor Model Rs C Rp Series model Rs Cs Rp Parallel model Cp Large C Small L H Small C Large L SMD 26 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .Circuit Mode Rs vs Rp .

LCRZ Module . Cs Cp H 27 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .Which Model is Correct ? Both are correct Cs = Cp (1 + D ) 2 Rp Rs Cs Cp One is a better approximation For high Q or low D components.

LCRZ Module .Agenda     Impedance Measurement Basics Measurement Discrepancies Measurement Techniques Error Compensation H 28 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

LCRZ Module .Measurement Techniques Auto Balancing Bridge Resonant (Q-adapter / Q-Meter) I-V (Probe) RF I-V Network Analysis (Reflection Coefficient) TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) H 29 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

LCRZ Module .Measurement Technique Topics Technique Selection Criteria Theory of Operation Advantages and Disadvantages of each technique Expanded connection information and theory for auto balancing bridge (r4 terminal pair) instruments Error Compensation to minimize measurement error H 30 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

LCRZ Module .Measurement Technique Selection Criteria Frequency DUT Impedance Required measurement accuracy Electrical test conditions Measurement parameters Physical characteristics of the DUT H 31 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

Measurement Techniques Network Analysis 100KHz RF I-V 1 MHz I-V 10KHz Resonant 22KHz Auto Balancing Bridge 30MHz 70MHz 110MHz 1.LCRZ Module .8 GHz 5HZ 1 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 40MHz 10M 100M 1G 10G Frequency (Hz) H 32 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .Frequency vs.

Z and C vs.LCRZ Module . Frequency 10M 1M Impedance (Ohms) 100K 10K 1K 160 100 10 1 100m 1 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M 100M 1G Frequency (Hz) H 33 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

Reactance Chart 10M 1M Impedance (Ohms) 100K 10K 1K 100 10 1 100m 1 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M 100M 1G Frequency (Hz) H 34 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .LCRZ Module .

LCRZ Module Frequency H .Solution by Frequency Comparison 100M 10M 1M 100K 10K Auto Balancing Bridge RF I-V I-V (Probe) Network Analysis Impedance (Ohms) 1K 100 10 1 100m 10m 1m 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M 100M 1G 10G Hz 35 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

LCRZ Module .Which is the Best ? All are good Each has advantages and disadvantages Multiple techniques may be required H 36 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

LCRZ Module .Auto Balancing Bridge Theory of Operation L DUT V1 I I = I2 + V 2 = I2 R 2 Z= V1 I2 = V2 I2 Virtual ground H R2 V 1R 2 V2 H 37 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

.O..X.Q.G.D.B.05% Widest measurement range C. Widest range of electrical test conditions Simple-to-use Low frequency.Auto Balancing Bridge Advantages and Disadvantages Most accurate.Z. f < 40MHz H 38 . basic accuracy 0.Y.L.R..

LCRZ Module H -jX .Performing High Q / Low D Measurement is Difficult Q= +jX X1 Xl R Impedance of very high Q device R1 R Very small R. difficult to measure 39 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

Meter) Technique Theory of Operation Tune C so the circuit resonates At resonance X D = -X C .LCRZ Module . only R D remains DUT L (X D ).Resonance (Q . R D OSC ~ e I= e Z Tuning C (X c) V V R V XC = V = D I e Q= (at resonance) |XD | |XC | |V| = = e D R RD H 40 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

Resonant Method Advantages and Disadvantages Very good for high Q .low D measurements Requires reference coil for capacitors Limited L.70MHz manual and slow requires experienced user No compensation H 41 .C values accuracy Vector 75kHz .30MHz automatic and fast easy to use limited compensation Scalar 22kHz .

V Probe Technique Theory of Operation R2 V2 V2 = I2R 2 V1 I2 DUT Z= V1 I2 V R 1 2 = V2 H 42 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .I .LCRZ Module .

I-V (Probe) Advantages and Disadvantages Medium frequency. 10kHz < f < 110MHz Moderate accuracy and measurement range Grounded and in-circuit measurements Simple-to-use H 43 .

RF I-V Theory of Operation High Impedance Test Head Voltage Detection Low Impedance Test Head Current Detection Voltage Detection Vi Ro Current Detection Vi Ro Vv Ro DUT Vv Ro DUT H 44 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .LCRZ Module .

1MHz < f < 1.RF I-V Advantages and Disadvantages High frequency.8GHz Most accurate method at > 100 MHz Grounded device measurement H 45 .

LCRZ Module .Network Analysis (Reflection) Technique Theory of Operation V INC DUT VR = VR V INC ZL .Z O = ZL + Z O H 46 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

8 GHz Moderate accuracy Limited impedance measurement range (DUT should be around 50 ohms) H 47 . f > 100 kHz . f > 1.Network Analysis Advantages and Disadvantages High frequency .Suitable.Best.

LCRZ Module .Z O = Z L+ Z O t 0 V INC H H 48 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .TDR Theory of Operation Oscilloscope V INC VR DUT Z L Series R & L Step Generator Parallel R & C = VR Z L.

TDNA (TDR) Advantages and Disadvantages Reflection and transmission measurements Single and multiple discontinuities or impedance mismatches ("Inside" look at devices) DUT impedance should be around 50 ohms Not accurate for m  or M or with multiple reflections  DUTs Good for test fixture design. transmission lines. high frequency evaluations H 49 .

1MHz < f < 1. f > 1. low frequency. in-circuit and grounded measurements. high frequency impedance measurement. f < 40MHz I-V.8 GHz Resonant. high frequency. 10KHz < f < 110MHz RF I-V. discontinuities and distributed characteristics H 50 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .8GHz Network analysis. high Q and low D TDNA.Simple Selection Rules Summary Auto balancing bridge. medium frequency.LCRZ Module .

8 GHz 51 RF I-V H .Measurement Methods and HP products Measurement Method HP Products Frequency range 100Hz to 100 kHz spot 100Hz to 10MHz spot 20Hz to 1MHz spot Auto Balancing Bridge HP 4263A LCR Meter (Four-Terminal Pair) HP 427xA LCR Meters HP 4284A Precision LCR Meter HP 4285A Precision LCR Meter HP 4192A LF Impedance Analyzer HP 4194A Impedance/Gain-Phase Analyzer Resonant (Q-Meter) I-V (Probe) HP 42851A Q Adapter ( with HP 4285A) HP 41941A Impedance Probe (with HP 4194A) HP 4193A Vector Impedance Meter HP 4286A RF LCR Meter HP 4291A Impedance/Material Analyzer 75KHz to 30MHz 5Hz to 13MHz 10Hz to 40MHz 75KHz to 30 MHz 10KHz to 100MHz 400KHz to 110MHz 1 MHz to 1 GHz 1 MHz to 1.

5GHz/20GHz HP 4195A Network/Spectrum Analyzer with HP 41951A Impedance Test Set HP 4396A Network/Spectrum Analyzer with HP 43961A Impedance Test Kit HP 8751A Network Analyzer HP 8752C/8753D RF Network Analyzers HP 8510B Network Analyzer HP 8719C/8720C Network Analyzers TDNA (TDR) HP 54121T Digitizing Oscilloscope and TDR HP 8752C/8753D RF Network Analyzers HP 8510B Network Analyzer HP 8719C/8720C Network Analyzers H 52 .8 GHz 5Hz to 500MHz 300KHz to 1.Measurement Methods and HP products (cont.3GHz/6GHz 45 MHz to 100GHz 130MHz to 13.) Measurement Method Network Analysis (Reflection Coefficient) HP Products Frequency range 100 kHz to 500MHz 100 kHz to 1.

Selecting a Test Frequency Ideal case is at operating conditions Reality.LCRZ Module . must make trade-offs Too high a frequency adds measurement. test fixture and instrument errors m  and M  DUTs more diffucult to measure H 53 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

9 % 41941A @ 40MHz ( 40 ) : 3.3 % H 54 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .Measurement Tradeoff Example Want to measure 100 pF ideal capacitor @ 200 MHz Z( ) 10M 1M 100K 10K 4194A @ 40MHz ( 40 1K 100 10 1 100m 1 10 100 1K 10K100K 1M 10M 100M 1G F (Hz) 4195A 41941 4284A 4194A 41941A @ 100MHz ( 16 4195A @ 200MHz ( 8 ) : 6.05% ) : 1.2 % ) : 1.2 % Accuracy comparison 4284A @ 1MHz (1600 4194A @ 10MHz (160 ) : 0.LCRZ Module .6 % ) : 5.

00 pF B MAX 350.0 m MKR 1 006 570.Auto Balancing Bridge B: D A: Cp A MAX 13.000 Hz STOP 40 000 000.0742 pF D A/DIV 500.0 B\DIV 50.000 Hz 55 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .375 Hz Cp 10.LCRZ Module .00 H fF m START 1 000.

000 MKR 1 011 579.00 pF B MAX 1.0 fF B MIN 0.000 Hz STOP 100 000 000.454 Hz Cp 10.000 Hz 56 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .LCRZ Module .000 H START 100 000.4523 pF D A/DIV 500.I-V B: D A: Cp A MAX 13.

000 Hz 57 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .Network Analysis IMPEDANCE B: REF A: REF 180.LCRZ Module H .0f DIV START 100 000. T= 0dBm DIV 500.00 RBW: 3 KHZ ST: 6.448 Hz Cp 10.0 13.000 Hz STOP 500 000 000.7531p F D 36.15 sec RANGE: A= 0.00p [ F ] [ F ] MKR 1 018 519.

LCRZ Module .Agenda     Impedance Measurement Basics Measurement Discrepancies Measurement Techniques Error Compensation H 58 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

LCRZ Module .Error Compensation to Minimize Measurement Errors      Compensation and Calibration (Compensation = Calibration) –Definition of Compensation and Calibration –Cable correction OPEN/SHORT Compensation –Basic Theory –Problems which can not be eliminated by OPEN/SHORT compensation OPEN/SHORT/LOAD Compensation –Basic Theory –Load device selection Practical Examples Summary H 59 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

LCRZ Module .) H 60 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .Definition of Calibration  To define the "Calibration Plane" at which measurement accuracy is specified Z Analyzer LCR Meter Standard Device 100 ! 100 Calibration Plane (Measurement accuracy is specified.

Cable Correction Definition : Calibration Plane extension using specified HP cables (HP 16048A/B/D/E) LCR Meter LCR HP Measurement Cable Meter Calibration Plane H Calibration Plane 61 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .LCRZ Module .

LCRZ Module H . DUT 100 2 types of compensation .Definition of Compensation To reduce the effects of error sources existing between the DUT and the instrument's "Calibration Plane".OPEN/SHORT compensation Z .OPEN/SHORT/LOAD compensation Calibration Plane 62 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics . etc. Fixture Z Analyzer LCR Meter 100 +Z Cables Scanner.

OPEN/SHORT Compensation .Zs)Yo Hp Zm Lp Co Go Zdut Lc H 63 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .Zs 1 .LCRZ Module .(Zm .Basic Theory Test Fixture Residuals Residual Impedance ( Zs ) Hc Rs Ls Stray Admittance ( Yo ) Zs = Rs + jwLs Yo = Go + jwCo Zdut = Zm .

LCRZ Module H .OPEN/SHORT Compensation Issues Problem 1 Difficulty to eliminate complicated residuals Stray capacitance LCR Meter Residual inductance Residual resistance SCANNER Complicated Residuals DUT 64 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

OPEN/SHORT Compensation Issue
Problem 2 Difficulty to eliminate Phase Shift Error

Not a standard length cable* LCR Meter
DUT

Test Fixture

* Or not an HP cable
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Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics - LCRZ Module

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OPEN/SHORT Compensation Issue
Problem 3 Difficulty to have correlation among instruments. Discrepancy in Measurement Value
Ideal Case Instrument #1 Instrument #2 Instrument #3
100 pF 0.01

Real World
101 pF 0.02

100 pF 0.01

99.7pF 0.005

100 pF 0.01

102 pF 0.0003

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Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics - LCRZ Module

OPEN/SHORT/LOAD Compensation
- Basic Theory -

I1 AB CD

I2

Impedance Instrument

V1

V2

Zdut

DUT

Unknown 2-terminal pair circuit

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Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics - LCRZ Module

OPEN/SHORT/LOAD Compensation . Conversions to real and imaginary components are necessary H 68 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .Zs) (Zo .Basic Theory Zstd (Zo .LCRZ Module .Zsm) (Zxm .Zs) * Zdut = Zxm .Zxm) Zo : Zs : OPEN measurement value SHORT measurement vaue Zsm : Measurement value of LOAD device Zstd : True value of LOAD device Zxm : Measurement value of DUT Zdut : Corrected value of DUT * These are complex vectors.

OPEN/SHORT/LOAD Compensation Eliminates complicated residuals Eliminates phase shift error Maximizes correlation between instruments H 69 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .LCRZ Module .

OPEN/SHORT/LOAD Compensation Effects 3 C-measurement error [%] 2 OPEN/SHORT compensation 1 OPEN/SHORT/LOAD compensation )) (( 200 400 600 800 1000 70 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .LCRZ Module Frequency [kHz] H .

Input LOAD measurement value as a reference value.LCRZ Module . Measure LOAD device as accurately as possible.Procedure of OPEN/SHORT/LOAD Compensation 1. H 71 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics . Direct-connected test fixture 2.

Procedure of OPEN/SHORT/LOAD Compensation 3.LCRZ Module . Perform OPEN/SHORT/LOAD compensation at the test terminal. Measure DUT at the test terminal. Test Fixture with complicated residuals Test Terminal 4. H 72 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

LCRZ Module . Select a LOAD device whose impedance value is close to that of the DUT to be measured. When you measure a DUT which has only one impedance value.LOAD Device Selection .Consideration 1 When you measure DUTs which have various impedance values. Select a LOAD device whose impedance value is 100 ~ 1k. H 73 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

i.Consideration 2 - Select pure and stable capacitance or resistance loads (low D capacitors .LCRZ Module .LOAD Device Selection . H 74 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .e. mica) LOAD value must be accurately known.

LCRZ Module .Practical Examples (A) (B) 4285A 4284A 16047C (1) (1) 16048D 16047A (2) DUT DUT H 75 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

Practical Examples (C) (D) 4285A 4285A Non-HP Cable (1) 16047A (2) (2) (1) SCANNER 16048A DUT DUT 76 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .LCRZ Module H .

Practical Example (E) (2) 4195A 16092A (1) 41951A H 77 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .LCRZ Module .

LCRZ Module Compensation H .Summary Calibration and Compensation Comparison Theory Calibration Eliminate instrument system errors Define the "Calibration Plane using a CAL standard Eliminate the effects of cable error Extend "Calibration Plane" to the end of the cable Eliminate the effects of error sources existing between "Calibration Plane" and DUT Eliminate the effects of simple fixture residuals Cable correction Compensation OPEN/SHORT Compensation OPEN/SHORT/LOAD Eliminate the effects of complex fixture residuals 78 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .

) Non-specified HP cable Non-HP cable Self-made Test Fixture Direct Test Fixture Complicated Fixture Scanner.Selection Guideline Instruments Fixture Connection Primary Fixture Secondary Fixture Residual Compensation OPEN/SHORT only Direct Test Fixture Z Analyzer Specified HP Cable LCR Meter (4284A. Direct Test Fixture Other Fixtures Cable correction + OPEN/SHORT Cable correction + OPEN/SHORT/LOAD OPEN/SHORT/LOAD OPEN/SHORT or OPEN/SHORT/LOAD 79 Kobe Instrument Division Back to Basics .LCRZ Module H . 4285A etc. etc.Summary Which compensation technique should you select? .