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Presented by; Team 4

Contingency Theory Approach Description
 Contingency theory is a leader-match theory
(Fiedler & Chemers, 1974)

 Tries to match leaders to appropriate situations

 Leader’s effectiveness depends on how well the leader’s style fits the context  Fiedler’s generalizations about which styles of leadership are best and worst are based on empirically grounded generalizations

The Fiedler Contingency Model
 The Fiedler Contingency Model

was created in the mid-1960s by Fred Fiedler.  The model states that there is no one best style of leadership. Instead, a leader's effectiveness is based on the situation. This is the result of two factors 1.Leadership style 2.Situational favorableness"

Fiedler believed that leadership style is fixed. and it can be measured using a scale he developed called Least-Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Scale .

Leadership styles are described as: Leadership Styles  Task-motivated (Low LPCs)  Leaders are concerned primarily with reaching a goal  Relationship-motivated (High LPCs)  Leaders are concerned with developing close interpersonal relationships  Leader Style Measurement Scale (Fiedler) Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Scale High LPCs = Relationship-motivated Low LPCs = Task-motivated .

(LPC) Scale Unfriendly Unpleasant Rejecting Tense Cold Boring 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Friendly Pleasant Accepting Relaxed Warm Interesting Backbiting Uncooperative Hostile Guarded Insincere Unkind Inconsiderate Untrustworthy Gloomy Loyal Cooperative Supportive Open Sincere Kind Considerate Trustworthy Cheerful .

• Relationshiporiented leaders is task-oriented leaders . .  He said that low LPCs are very effective at completing tasks.  Relationshipbuilding is a low priority.Fiedler called these as “low LPC-leaders”.Lower Score  The type of leader Higher Score •High LPCs focus more on personal connections. and they're good at avoiding and managing conflict.

2.Situational Favorableness This depends on three distinct factors LeaderMember Relations. Task Structure Leader's Position Power .

Situational Variables/3 Factors Leader-Member Relations . positive relationship Poor – little or no subordinate trust. and attraction of followers for leader  Group atmosphere –   Good – high degree of subordinate trust. unfriendly . loyalty. friction exists. liking.Refers to the group atmosphere and the degree of confidence.

has few alternatives task completion .correct solutions exist .can be clearly demonstrated limited number .are clearly stated/known path to accomplish .Task Structure  Concerns the degree to which requirements of a task are clear and spelled out  High Structure –     requirements/rules .

has many alternatives task completion .not clearly stated/known path to accomplish .Task Structure. cont’d.correct solutions exist .cannot be clearly demonstrated/verified unlimited number .  Concerns the degree to which requirements of a task are clear and spelled out  Low Structure –     requirements/rules .

Position Power  Designates the amount of authority a leader has to reward or punish followers   Strong Power –  authority to hire or fire. give raises in rank or pay . give raises in rank or pay Weak Power –  no authority to hire or fire.

 3 Factors . unstructured tasks (low structure). & Weak leader position power Fall in between these extremes  Moderately Favorable –  .determine the favorableness of various situations in organizations  Situations that are rated:  Least Favorable    Poor leader-follower relations.

determine the favorableness of various situations in organizations  Situations that are rated:  Most Favorable    good leader-follower relations. & strong leader position power . 3 Factors . defined tasks (high structure).


Applying the Fiedler Contingency Model Step 1: Identify your leadershi p style Step 3: Determine the most effective leadership style Step 2: Identify your situation .

Step 1: Identify your leadership style Step 2: Identify the situation 3 questions: •Are leader-member relations good or poor in the team? •Is the task is structured. •Lower score Task-focused. . or is it more unstructured •Do the leader have strong or weak power over in the team? •Rate your experience with this person using the scale that is LPC scale. •Higher score Relationshipfocused.

Step 3: Determine the most effective leadership style LeaderMember Relations Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor Task Structure Leader's Most Effective Position Power Leader Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Low LPC Low LPC Low LPC High LPC High LPC High LPC High LPC Low LPC Structured Structured Unstructured Unstructured Structured Structured Unstructured Unstructured .

Lack of flexibility. . Criticisms of the Model An issue with the Least-Preferred CoWorker Scale .

.Path –Goal Theory  Developed by Robert House  A theory which describes: How leaders can motivate their followers to achieve group and organizational goals and the kinds of behaviors leaders can engage into motivate followers.

Path-Goal Theory: Brief Description  It is about how leaders motivate followers to accomplish designated goals  The stated goal of leadership is to enhance employee performance and employee satisfaction by focusing on employee motivation  Emphasizes the relationship between the leader’s style and characteristics of the followers and the work setting  The leader must use a style that best meets the followers motivational needs .

Guidelines for Path-Goal Theory  Determine what outcomes subordinates are trying to obtain in the workplace  Reward subordinates for performing at a high level or achieving their work goals by giving them desired outcomes  Make sure subordinates believe that they can obtain their work goals and perform at a high level .

Leadership Behaviors  Directive leadership  Supportive Leadership  Participative Leadership  Achievement-Oriented Leadership Note: House assumes leaders are flexible. can display any behaviors depending on the situations .

Subordinate Characteristics  Need for affiliation: prefer supportive leadership  Preferences for structure: prefer directive leadership  Desires of control: prefer participative leadership  Self-perceived level of task ability: prefer achievement orientated leadership .

Path-Goal Theory .


Path –Goal Variables and Predictions .

Path-Goal Theory Pros  Helps understand how leader behavior effects subordinates satisfaction and work performance  Deals directly with motivation – one of the only theories to address this  Provides a very practical model – make a clear path and follow it .

places a majority of the responsibility on the leader .Path-Goal Theory Cons  This is a very complex theory that incorporates many aspects of leadership  Research only partially supports the theory  Fails to explain adequately the relationship between leader behavior and subordinate motivation  Treats leadership as a one way street.

plays the most important role in determining who emerges as a leader. not someone’s traits or abilities. researchers maintained that the situation.Characteristics of the Situation Historically. not born. They also believed that leaders were made. and that prior leadership experience helped forge effective leaders .

and superiors.Recently :  More recently. and feedback about the subordinates’ performance . leadership theories have explored how situational factors affect leaders’ behaviors. For example. role expectations of subordinates. peers. the nature of the task. a leader’s behavior was said to be depend on a leader’s perceptions of several critical aspects of the situation: rules and regulations governing the job.

unit. formal organization.The Congruence Model  Input. which consists of the system. which consists of the environment. and informal organization. and history.  Processes. . and individual. resources.  Output. which consist of the work. people.

 and the informal organization. .  the formal organizational.Congruence Model  The core of the Congruence Model has four components:  the work.  the people.

 The work is “what is to be done” by the organization and its component parts. needs and preferences. knowledge. . expectations.  The people refers to the leader and followers and their skills. experience.

organizational structure. and organizational culture affect leaders’ and followers’ behavior. lateral interdependence.  The informal organization refers to its culture (shared backgrounds. organizational design. or beliefs. The formal organization addresses how the level of authority. values. norms.) .

social. political. and legal forces. . These include : technological.Environmental characteristics  Environmental characteristics concern situational      factors outside the task or organization that still affect the leadership process. economic.

. and to think about how they can change the situation in order for everyone to be more satisfied and productive.Summary  Although leaders’ and followers’ behaviors are affected by a variety of situational factors. all too often leaders and followers completely overlook how changing the situation can help them to change their behavior. The most important point regarding situational engineering is to get leaders and followers to understand that the situation is not set in concrete.