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.  It prevents the flow of water and accumulates it in a deep storage reservoir.Introduction What is a dam ?  A dam is a hydraulic structure constructed across a river or a stream to retain the water.

Types of dams  Based on materials used : • Concrete dam • Steel dam • Earth dam • Timber dam  Based on structural behavior : • Gravity dam • Arch dam • Buttress dam .

Based on hydraulic behavior : • Over flow dam • Non over flow dam  Based on function : • Storage dam • Diversion dam • Coffer dam .

 They can be constructed on any dam site. .  They may be constructed of masonry or concrete.GRAVITY DAM  Gravity dams are solid concrete or masonry structures used to retain the water and maintain their stability against design loads from the geometric shape and the mass and strength of the concrete . where a natural foundation enough to bear the weight of the dam. solid and required little maintenance.  Gravity dam is so proportioned that its own weight resists the forces acting upon it . This type of structure is most durable.

Forces on gravity dam  Water pressure  Weight of the dam  Uplift pressure  Ice pressure  Wave pressure  Silt pressure  Wind pressure  Pressure due to earthquake .

to a value ‘wh’ at any depth ‘h’ below the water surface. Water pressure : •It Is the major external force acting on a dam. •Pressure intensity varies triangularly. •Force at water pressure. zero at water surface . P = w h² / 2 where w is unit weight of water = 1000kg/m3 • acts at ‘h/3’ from base of dam .

• unit length of dam is considered. W = w1+w2+w3 • total weight (W) of dam acts at c.Weight of the dam : • major resisting force acting on a dam • for convenience cross section of a dam is divided into simple geometrical shapes such as triangles and rectangles.g of its section. .

Uplift pressure : • Uplift pressure is the upward pressure exerted by water as it seeps through the body of the dam or its foundation. • Uplift pressure varies with whether structure is having drain lines or not and also with section is cracked or not . . • Seeping water exerts pressure on the base of the dam and it depends upon water head . • Figure shown has drainage holes and not a cracked section.


Ka / 2 . then the force exerted by this silt in addition to external water pressure.Silt pressure : • Silt gets deposited against the upstream face of the dam. •Is code recommends as Horizontal silt and water pressure is assumed to be equivalent to that of a fluid with a mass of 1360 kg/m3 •If h is the height of the silt deposited. h² . can be Psilt = γsat .

 Wave pressure :  Waves are generated on the surface of the reservoir by the blowing winds. may sometimes melt and expand. Hw = Pw = 20 (hw^2)  It acts at hw/2 above the still water surface.  Ice pressure :  The ice may be formed on the water surface of the reservoir in cold countries.  The magnitude of this force varies from 250 to 1500 KN/m2 depending upon the temperature variations. .  Waves pressure depends upon the wave height. which cause pressure towards the downstream side.

 Earthquake forces :  results in inertial forces that include vertical motion. oscillatory increase. . or decrease in hydrostatic pressure (all put force against dam)  As per IS Code. the seismic coefficient method shall be used for the design of the dams. while for dams over 100 m height the response spectrum method shall be used. for dams up to 100 m height.

S = sum (MR)/sum (Mo) and  F.S should not be less than 1.O.O.5 .  For safety against overturning find Sum of all the Resisting moments (MR) and Sum of all Over turning moments (Mo) then F.STABILITY ANALYSIS 1) STABILITY AGAINST OVERTURNING :  If the resultant force cuts the base within the body of dam there will be no overturning.

STABILITY ANALYSIS 2. • Sliding will occur when the net horizontal force exceeds the frictional resistance developed at that level. • Fs should not be less than 1 . SLIDING • A dam may fail in sliding at its base.

 The compressive stress may exceed the allowable stress and the dam material may get crushed. . 4) TENSION  Masonry and concrete gravity dam are usually designed in such a way that no tension is developed anywhere. these materials may crack.STABILITY ANALYSIS 3) COMPRESSION OR CRUSHING  A dam may fail by the failure of its materials. because the materials can not withstand sustained tensile stresses.  If it subjected to such stresses.

STEPS FOR ANALYSIS OF GRAVITY DAM 1. uplift force find sum of these vertical forces . weight of water acting on inclined faces. Calculate the vertical forces: weight of dam . Consider unit length of the dam.

S = MR/Mo >= 1. O. Find out some of horizontal forces : horizontal component of water forces is P = w h² / 2 3) Calculate moment due to various forces 4 )By taking over turning moments(Mo) as (+ve) and resisting moments(MR) as (-ve) check safety against over turning F.2.5 .

Check safety against sliding : obtain FS against sliding. Calculation of stresses : location of resultant force from toe x = sum (M) / sum (V) 7. Eccentricity e = (b/2) – x b is base of dam.5. . it shuld not be less than one 6.

8. Normal stress at the toe Nt = sum [V/b(1+6e/b)] Normal stress at the heel Nh = sum [V/b(1-6e/b)] ( +ve sign indicates compressive force ) .

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