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Types of Changes

• Hard Changes (eg. Process, Information Systems, Structure) • Soft Changes (Values, mindset, culture) • Revolutionary (Dramatic Changes like BPR) • Evolutionary (Incremental Changes like Kaizen) • Accidental Change • Planned Change

Doze of Change and Motivation
One day a farmer's donkey fell down into a well.The animal cried piteously for hours as the farmer tried to figure out what to do. Finally, he decided the animal was old, and the well needed to be covered up anyway; it just wasn't worth it to retrieve the donkey.

Story Continues …..
He invited all his neighbors to come over and help him. They all grabbed a shovel and began to shovel dirt into the well. At first, the donkey realized what was happening and cried horribly. Then, to everyone's amazement he quieted down.

What donkey did!
A few shovel loads later, the farmer finally looked down the well. He was astonished at what he saw. With each shovel of dirt that hit his back, the donkey was doing something amazing. He would shake it off and take a step up. As the farmer's neighbors continued to shovel dirt on top of the animal, he would shake it off and take a step up. Pretty soon, everyone was amazed as the donkey stepped up over the edge of the well and happily trotted off!

Life is going to push you in a deep well & shovel dirt on you, all kinds of dirt. The trick to getting out of the well is to shake it off and take a step up. Each of our troubles is a steppingstone. We can get out of the deepest wells just by not stopping, never giving up! Shake it off and take a step up.

The Change Management Process Model .

.Reactions to Change People’s reactions are based on past experiences and their perceptions of the change Most people do not resist change but resist the perception that it is being forced upon them People resist change when their personal interests are hurt or they seem to be hurt.

Resistance to Change / Welcome Change • Security • Pride and satisfaction • Friends and important contacts • Freedom • Responsibility • Authority • Good working conditions • No need for change • More harm than good • Lack of respect • Objectionable manner • No input • Create burdens or add more work • The peer pressure .

Resistance to Change / Welcome Change • • • • • • • • • • • • • Personal attitudes and personal impact Financial reasons Inertia / Status Lack of recognition of need Insufficient need Fear of the unknown Lack of trust Revenge Surprise Poor timing Poor approach Misunderstanding Absent benefits .

Resistance to Change Evidenced • Absenteeism • Decreased productivity • Regression • Resignation • Transfer • Sabotage .

. Analyzing probable reactions. 4. 6. 5.A Step-by-Step Change Model 1. Implementing the change 2. Establishing a timetable. Communicating the change 3. 7. Determining the need or desire for change. Making a final decision. Preparing tentative plans.

An Indian saying is. “Putting yourself in the shoes of other person”.Empathy • Definition of Empathy is. “Do not criticize a person until you have walked in his moccasins” What is the difference between empathy and sympathy? .

This could be possible to know in advance by exercising empathy. the first key is to KNOW to what extent the change will be resented or rejected on one hand and accepted or welcomed on the other hand.Empathy • What is the most important quality of a fisherman? • In managing change. .

Empathy Procedure of empathizing is: • Develop “Know Factor” • Develop “Empathy Worksheet” • Analyze for “Empathy regarding change” ACTIVITY Can you empathize your colleague/partner what would be his/her reaction if you ask him/her for combined studies or go for shopping/picnic or donate blood? .

Communication is one of the keys to the management of change.Communication To make ideas common in such a manner that we get desired response/results. It is more than “telling” and means “creating understanding” .

Communication What is communication model and where barriers can be possible? .

• Sender picks the wrong time . • Sender has poor communication skill.Sender Barriers • Sender does not know enough about the receiver. • Sender has a negative attitude toward the receiver. • Sender has a negative attitude toward the message – and does not want to communicate it. • Sender has a negative attitude toward communicating – and does not care whether receiver understands or not • Sender fails to get the attention and interest of the receiver.

.Sender Barriers • • • • • • Sender uses the wrong method Sender chooses the wrong place Sender uses vocabulary that is not clear to the receiver Sender uses negative tone Sender is in a hurry Sender fails to verify whether receiver understands.

anger and frustration .Receiver Barriers • Receiver is preoccupied with something “more important” • Receiver does not like or respect the sender • Receiver is not interested in the message • Receiver “knows” what the message is going to be (or thinks he does) • Receiver does not want to understand the message as it may be unpleasant • Receiver has emotional barrier such as fear. anxiety.

Receiver Barriers • Receiver is physically tired • Receiver is thinking about what to say when the sender finishes • Receiver does not understand English (any language) • Receiver pretends to listen when they do not listen • Receiver pretends to understand when he does not understand. .

To Whom and When? “Who” should be told about change? The obvious answer is those who need and want change. “When” is difficult answer unless we use the phrase “whenever practical” . In other words those who are concerned and involved in change.

oral and written. USE ORAL COMMUNICATION WHEN: • The receiver is not particularly interested in getting the Message • It is important to get feedback • Emotions are high • The receiver is too busy or preoccupied to read • Criticism of receiver is involved • The sender wants to persuade or convince .How to communicate? There are two ways of communication.

How to communicate? • Oral is more natural • Discussion is needed • The receiver can not read the language of the sender USE WRITTEN COMMUNICATION WHEN: • The sender wants a record for future reference • The receiver will be referring to it later • The message is complex and requires study by the receiver. • The message includes step-by-step procedure • A copy of the message should go to another person .

• Despite good labor-management relations. there was a long history of resistance to change. there was a men’s apparel manufacturing Company. • There were 800 employees in three plants. . Question: How a strategy is developed and implemented.Participation Case: • In 1958. • Top management wanted to changeover from batch process to the continuous flow process.

Need for Participation An effective participative program must be based on a philosophy that the input of employees can contribute to the effectiveness of an organization. as well as achieve quality of work life and personal satisfaction for the Employees. .

then decides and informs subordinates of the decision. considers the input. The manager decides without any input and informs subordinates of the decision 2. 4. The manager empowers the subordinates to make the decision. The manager asks for input from subordinates (either individually or as group). Question: Which approach is the best one.Participation and Decision Making There are four approaches. 3. 1. . The manager conducts a problem-solving conference with subordinates to reach a consensus on the decision.

B. C. Make a “tentative” plan and ask your subordinates for their reactions and comments. tell your subordinates some of your thoughts – including the need for the change – and get their reactions. Prepare a final plan and sell it to your subordinates by explaining the need for the change and how you arrive at the final plan. Question: Which alternative gets more input? .“When” of Participation Assumption is you have decided to make a radical change in your department: A. From the beginning.

This becomes an important criterion in both selection and promotion. • “Participation is something that the top orders the middle to do for the bottom”. . This approach will certainly fail. • While Nissan establishing a plant in US. top management stated that they will get rid of any manager who does not believe and practice the company philosophy of participative management.Cautions to Consider Participation management is not a panacea for solving all problems and for making everybody happy.

People vary in their desire to participate.Cautions to Consider • The question of whether participation should be voluntary or mandatory must be carefully considered. .

CASE MOVING INTO A NEW MANAGERIAL JOB Read the case and present as per following Instructions: • Background of Case • Problem Identification • Change Methodology • Implementation Strategy .

Culture Some questions are related with culture: • • • • • What is culture? How culture can be developed? Can culture be managed? What is the significance of culture in business? What is the significance of culture in change management? • How “change” can be the part of culture? .

CULTURE SCREEN • Rules and Policies • Goals and Measurement • Customs and Norms • Training • Ceremonies and events • Management Behaviors • Rewards and Recognitions • Communications • Physical environment • Organization Structure QUESTION: * Do these elements have some connectivity with org. culture? .Culture The function of culture management during a process of change is to implement and sustain changes.

Culture Activity Take one example. A retail organization. how? (Hint: Can culture screen be used) . wants to change (improve) customer service in comparison with the competitors. for instance Makro. Can this change be made the part of culture or sustain in organization for longer period of time? If yes.

Culture • Identify implementation actions of culture screen elements that require changes. tracking progress. • Measure the impact. (Periodic measurement. achievements of goal) • Continue to manage cultural components to reinforce change .

CASE 2 ESTABLISHING VARIABLE WORK HOURS Read the case and present as per following Instructions: • Background of Case • Problem Identification • Change Methodology • Implementation Strategy .

LEADERSHIP • • • • What is leadership? What is role of leadership in change management? Is leadership responsibility of top management? Give examples of leaders who brought changes in any walk of life. • What is the difference between Relationship and Position Power • What are the traits required for a leader to acquire and exercise in change situations? .

LEADERSHIP Key attributes are: • • • • • • Creativity Team Orientation Listening Skills Coaching Skills Accountability Appreciativeness .

Measure Performance 3.Be Generous with Rewards and Recognition .Set Goals 2. Steps of Change Implementation Model 1.Change Implementation Model Change Implementation models starts working for implementation at grass root level at either pilot testing or roll out stage.Provide Feedback and Coaching 4.

Activity How goals are set? Answer the steps and procedure of it in group. .

Make goals achievable 4. Establish right away. Set a time line 7. Create goals at grass root level that are aligned with goals of strategic level. Keep it short and simple 2.Goal Setting Guidelines for effective goal setting are: 1. Involve the team in goal setting process 6. 3. Make goals challenging 5. “What’s in it for me?” .

There are two important reasons of performance measurement. .Measure Performance Performance needs to be measured against the set goals. 1. Measurement provides a way to track progress. 2. Activity: Design a performance measurement system in group. To determine when goals have been achieved.

2. 3. Determine who will be responsible for keeping score . 4. Set specific and numeric expectations. Keep it simple Be creative Involve people in designing their own measurement 5. Determine the frequency of the measurement 6.Guidelines for Effective Measurement 1.

Feedback & Coaching • • • • • What is feedback? What is the need of feedback? What is. if there is no feedback? How feedback should be taken or given? What is the role of feedback in change management? .

Activity If you are given an assignment of coaching anyone. how will you coach him/her? Assume necessary information and answer in steps and what things you must consider or care of? .

establish up front that coaching will take place with everyone. • Do your best to make people feel comfortable enough to be coached. • Be specific and keep it balanced • Be empathetic • Encourage team members to coach one another about changes they are making.Effective Guidelines of Coaching • Before coaching anyone. • Make coaching timely. • Keep it simple and informal • Choose an appropriate time and location without interruptions. • Do not criticize. .

Be Generous with Rewards & Recognition • What are rewards and recognition and are they same? • What would you prefer. reward or recognition? . reward or recognition for anything good you do? • What is the role of empathy in finding what one needs.

Try to make rewards and recognition fair for everyone. Remember the magic words. Offer a few well-placed words of praise and appreciation. Make rewards and recognition public and keep your team aware of them. “THANK YOU” .Guidelines for R&R • • • • • • • • • • Directly link to rewards and recognition to performance Involve people in designing rewards. Communicate success once change goals are achieved. Make rewards and recognition timely. Be creative Make rewards and recognition equal to the efforts required to achieve the goals.

The Dimensions of Change Types of change • • • • Structural change Cost cutting Process change Cultural change .

this approach to change is a long-term proposition. . It is characterized by high levels of employee participation and flatter organizational structure. downsizing. and asset sales to meet its objectives Theory O change aims to create higher performance by fostering a powerful culture and capable employees. Theory E relies heavily on cost cutting. It is driven from the top of the organization and makes heavy use of outside consultants. and attempts to build bonds between the enterprise and its employees.The Dimensions of Change Theory E change aims for a dramatic and rapid increase in shareholder value. Unlike Theory E.

The Dimensions of Change Which is best or most appropriate? .

Are you change ready? Launching a change initiative is not likely to succeed if the organization is not change ready. Activity How an organization can be made change ready and what benefits an organization can derive from it? .

. • The organization has nonhierarchical structure. • People in the organization are personally motivated to change.Are you change ready? • The organization has effective and respected leaders.

Becoming change ready • Do a unit-by – unit change readiness assessment • Develop more participative approaches to how everyday business is handled. • Give people a voice .