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PLUMBING

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PLUMBING SERVICES:-The piping systems inside the infrastructure for the provision of water supply, natural gas and sewage disposal from the Public health point of view with hygiene Environment can be called as Plumbing. Plumbing services are classified into mainly three branches. a) Drainage System:- It is a system in which includes all the piping, which conveys sewage, rainwater, or other liquid wastes to a legal point of disposal. It does not include the mains of a public sewer system, or a public sewage treatment or disposal plant. b) Water Supply System:- Domestic water supply system use basically means consumption of water by human being for purposes, such as drinking cooking, personal ablution, washing clothes, utensils and yards or rooms, and flushing toilets. c) Natural Gas Supply System:- Natural Gas Supply System is the network of pipe which is use to supply the gas from the central gas plants up to the kitchen in the buildings.

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INTRODUCTION
DRAINAGE SYSTEM:

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This is a building system in which all the human facial material from the W.C and the other waste water from all the fixtures in building area is collected from a network of Soil & waste pipes through gravity flow to the ground floor and will be disposed in the main city sewage systems. The waste water from the basements are collected at lower basement sump pit and pumped to the ground floor manhole from there same is driven out. Out side the building there is Final Inspection Chamber (FIC) and that chamber connected to Municipality Manhole. All the water flows to main sump through FIC only. Inside the building we have Gully trap, Manholes, Sediment collector, Sand trap etc., according to the design of drainage system.

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Design Criteria
Basic Design Criteria:
Basically, drainage system can be designed based on the provision of piping arrangement to carry out the building sewage system to the public sewage system without affecting the environment. There are two basic systems of plumbing for building drainage as follows. Single stack system Double stack system Single stack system:

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In this system of plumbing the wastes from all soil appliances are connected to one main soil stack, which is connected to building sewer. All traps of soil & waste appliances are completely ventilated through separate ventilating pipe/stack. Thus, it contains one soil cum waste stack and one ventilating stack. The Single stack system shall be preferred where the planning of a building provides for a suitable grouping of all soil and waste appliances and all are commonly taken to building sewer and further to the public sewer.

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Design Criteria

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Double stack system:

In this system of plumbing the soil and waste stacks are distinct and separate, the soil stacks shall be connected to building sewer line and waste stack shall be connected to building sewer through a trapped gully. All traps of soil & waste appliances are completely ventilated each through separate ventilating pipe/stack. Thus, it contains one soil stack, one waste stack and two ventilating stacks.
The Double stack system is advantageous where sullage (waste water) from waste appliances can be dealt separately for use in landscaping, for closet flushing only etc. The basic idea of the system is to separate the soil waste getting mixed with waste water inside the building.

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Design Criteria
Venting System:
Individual Vent Common Vent Individual Vent: The simplest form of venting any trap or trapped fixture is an individual vent for each trap. Also popularly said as Back vent. A individual vent pipe is connected between the trap and the branch connection to the drainage system. The protecting vent should be between the fixture trap and the source of pressure fluctuations. Common Vent: Common vent is a combination of two individual vents. Individual vent is permitted to vent two traps or trapped fixture as a common vent. Common vent shall be provided for the fixtures being located in the same floor.

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DEFINITIONS
Branch: Branch means any part of the piping system other than a riser, main, or stack.

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Drain: Drain means any pipe which carries waste water or waterborne wastes in a building drainage system.
Flush Valve: Flush valve means a device located at the bottom of a flush tank for flushing water closets and similar fixtures. Stack: Stack is a general term for any vertical line of soil, waste, or vent piping extending through one or more stories. Sump: sump means a watertight tank which receives sewage or liquid waste and which is located the normal grade of the gravity system and must be emptied by mechanical means.

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DRAINAGE PIPES

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In Drainage system contains different types of Pipes

Waste Pipe

Soil Pipe
Rain Water Pipe Soil Vent Pipe Waste Vent Pipe Condensing Drain Pipe

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DESCRIPTION
Waste Pipe (WP):
Waste pipe means a pipe which conveys only liquid waste free from fecal material

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Soil Pipe (SP):


Soil pipe means a pipe which conveys the discharge of water closets or similar fixtures containing fecal material with or without the discharge of other fixtures to the building drain or building sewer.

Rain Water Pipe (RWP):


Rain Water pipe means carry the rain water collected in the premises of the building. The rain water collected on the roof of the building might cause dampness on the ceiling/walls.

Vent Pipe (VP):


Vent Pipe which carries flow of air over the waste from kitchen sinks, lavatories, bathtubs, bidets, showers, floor drains, drinking fountains and stand pipes in the same pipe.

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Plumbing Fixtures

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Plumbing fixtures & fittings are means of carrying out the waste due to sanitary, cleaning, washing and food preparation needs of the occupants in a building including the requirements of water conservation. Hence, a building has to be designed for adequate number of plumbing fixtures and fittings depending up on the type of occupancy and intensity of occupancy to satisfy the basic needs of the public and the environment. Sanitary fixtures should be made of smooth non-absorb materials and should be free from concealed fouling spaces. The fixtures should be located in well-ventilated enclosures. Basic Plumbing Fixtures are...

Water Closet (WC)


Bidet (BDT) Bath Tub (BT) Urinal (UR) Shower Tray (ST) Wash Basin (WB) Kitchen Sink (KS)

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Plumbing Fixtures
Water Closet (WC):

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The purpose of a WC is to carry out the soil waste to the stack. It is made up of a in-built trap with water seal which prevents the foul smell entering into the toilet. WC shall be provided with flush valve/cistern, seat and cover, connector.
Basically Water Closets are two types one is European Water Closet and another one is Asian Water Closet.

European Water Closet

Asian Water Closet

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Plumbing Fixtures
In European water closets are two types, Wall Hung Water Closet Floor Mounted Water Closet

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Wall Hung Water Closet

Floor Mounted Water Closet

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Plumbing Fixtures
BIDET (BDT):
The purpose of bidet is for the external cleaning of body associated with women. A bidet shall be provided with a water spray, designed for external cleaning that directs the jet of water upward to the body.

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Bath Tub (BT):


The purpose of BT is to carry out the bath water to the stack. BT shall be provided with an in built over flow, drain with a trap, hot and cold mixer, overhead shower and hand shower.

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Plumbing Fixtures
URINAL (UR):
The purpose of urinal is for urination, which is associated with men. It is provided with waste coupling with dome type grating trap with extension pipe, push on/ off lever.

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Shower Tray (ST):

The purpose of the shower tray is to carry out the bath water to the stack. Shower shall be provided with overhead shower, jets, hot and cold mixer, drain with trap, glass or synthetic enclosure to prevent water spillage to the dry area of the room.

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Plumbing Fixtures
Wash Basin (WB):
The purpose of a WB is to carry out the waste water to the stack. WB shall be provided drain with a trap, over flow passage, with or without pop up waste coupling and hot and cold mixer.

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Kitchen Sink (KS):


The purpose of Kitchen sink is to carry out the domestic food waste generated to stack. Sink shall be provided with hot and cold mixer, drain with trap and overflow passage.

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Plumbing Fixtures

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Note: Refer the Design drawing for Waste and Vent pipe sizes. If sizes are not available follow the above sizes.

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Plumbing Fittings
Types of Drains Area Drain (AD)
Balcony Drain (BD) Floor Drain (FD) Funnel Floor Drain (FFD) Planter Drain (PD) Roof Drain (RD)

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Types of Clean Outs Clean Out (CO)


Floor Clean Out (FCO) Wall Clean Out (WCO) Ground Clean Out (GCO)

Types of Traps Grease trap/Interceptor


Gully Trap

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Plumbing Fixtures
Area Drain means a receptacle designed to Area Drain (AD): surface or storm water from an open area.

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collect

Input Drawing

Out Put Drawing

Standard Detail
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Plumbing Fixtures
Roof Drain (RD): Roof Drain means a drain to receive water collecting
the surface of a roof and to discharge it into a leader or conductor.

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on

Input Drawing

Out Put Drawing

Standard Detail

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Plumbing Fixtures
Grease trap/Interceptor:
Grease interceptor is a plumbing fitting that separates the grease entering into the sewer system.

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Location:

Generally located at plumbing fixture waste line, (kitchen, garages etc.) designed based on the differential densities and viscosity's of the liquid to prevent discharge of oils, fats and grease directly into the sewerage system.

Gully trap:A gully trap is a basin with a water seal to prevent foul
odours of the sewer reaching the surface.

Location:

Generally located at ground level with water seal to prevent foul gases spreading into the atmosphere from the sewer system. Waste water from kitchen and bathroom is piped to a gully trap before entering into the sewer. Gully traps are buried in the ground with the tops or surround raised above ground level to prevent ground water entering into the sewer.

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DRAINAGE ABBREVIATIONS

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DRAINAGE ABBREVIATIONS

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SHOP Drawing
Description:
Shop drawings also called Detail drawings are used to guide the construction and Erection members. Complete shop drawings show the levels, pipe sizes, setting out dimensions with co-ordinated all services. Since the shop drawings are intended only for use in the shop, they generally contain little or no information about the erection and installation of the MEP members they depict. The below steps are followed while preparing the Drainage Shop Drawing.

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Prepare Architectural drawing


Convert Double line with fittings Assigned the Levels Setting out Dimensions & pipe supports Section Views Standard Details View port creation Title Block updating

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SHOP Drawing

Guidelines for shop drawing Before starting the shop drawing refer all Input and submittals received from client. 1. Study the architectural, structural drawings for the FFL, beam depths and architectural sections. 2. Study the Reflected ceiling plan (RCP) drawing for the False ceiling level (FCL). 3. Study the Schematic riser diagram for Sanitary and Vent pipes. 4. Study the all approved submittals for example type of floor drain, roof drain, supports etc,. 5. Study client provided CAD standards, Legends. 6. Study special instructions given by client i.e. irrespective of the pipe diameter all are make double lines.

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SHOP Drawing

Preparation of Architectural drawing Client was provided the architectural drawing for all floors or areas. It contains all information like room patrons, plumbing fixtures, walls, columns, beams etc., So create one arch drawing for reference purpose.

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Procedure: 1. Delete unwanted text and dimensions.

2. Change text height as per shop drawing scale.


3. Change grid bubbles as per shop drawing scale. 4. Change all entities colour as 8. 5. Attach this Arch. File as reference for shop drawing file.

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SHOP Drawing

See below screen shot for Input Architectural Drawing

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SHOP Drawing

See below screen shot for Output Architectural Drawing

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SHOP Drawing

Conversion of Double line with fittings 1.Before starting the double line refer client specification they wants pipe sizes are Nominal diameter or Outer diameter. If they are asking Outer diameter, refer below table.

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2. Start making the double lines for the pipes as per the sizes mentioned in the contract drawing. 3. Place the pipe fittings like Y joint, 90, 45 degree elbows, Tee connections, P traps, clean outs etc., according to the standards of IPC. All fittings as per approved client submittals.

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SHOP Drawing
Refer below standard drainage fittings

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SHOP Drawing

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4. Reroute if necessary where ever clashes found with structures columns and fittings are not inserted within that distance. 5. Avoid the Elbows and Y fittings in walls.

5. Show the flow direction as per schematic drawing.


6. After completion of the double line and fittings change the layers and line type as per client CAD standards.

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SHOP Drawing

See below screen shot for Input Drainage Drawing

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SHOP Drawing

See below screen shot for Output Double line Drawing

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SHOP Drawing

Assigned the levels

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1. Show the pipe sizes and riser information as per the riser schematic drawing . 2. The slope is depend upon the pipe sizes, generally above 100 diameter is 1:100 and below 100 diameter is 1:50 (refer client Specifications) If we know the slope, Invert level can be calculated by relation I.L.=(slope) x (Length of the pipe) Generally drainage shop drawing prepared as two methods From Soffit of slab From Finished Floor Level

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SHOP Drawing
See below screen shot Calculated Invert Levels.

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See Example

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SHOP Drawing

Example:

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Soffit of slab method. Ex. See output drawing at encircled area the pipe diameter is 75 dia. So slope has 1:50 starting level is 0.250 FSS (maintain minimum distance from slab.) Measure the length of the pipe from starting point to ending point in the drawing Distance is = 1.1 m Other End Level : I.L.=1/50 x 1.1 = 0.22 0.250 + 0.22 = -0.272 FSS If you are going as per Flowing direction it is positive or opposite direction it is Negative. Follow the same procedure for continuation and show the Invert Level for every fitting.

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SHOP Drawing

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The invert level can be fixed by Elevation method or from Finished Floor level. It is depend on client requirement only. Slope indicates the angle of the pipe or deviation of the pipe and invert level indicates the bottom of pipe. Different pit have different levels, so that waste water can easily be flow in the pipes generally in a floor there will be a deep pit so that all the water is collected and is passed out. All the pipe may not be of same slope, but all the pipes should be connected to the pit or floor drain from there it is moved to the other location.

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SHOP Drawing

setting out Dimensions: The purpose of the Setting out dimensions is useful for Erection members to installation the pipes or fixtures or Drains at site or building. Show the dimensions for pipes ,fittings,drains and fixtures from center of pipe to nearest wall or column or Beam in two directions (Horizontal and Vertical).

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SHOP Drawing

Pipe Supports: "Supports" means devices for supporting and securing pipe, fixtures, and equipment.

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Hinged Extension Extension Split Clamp Split Clamp

Copper Extension Split Clamp

Show the Pipe supports in shop drawing and maintain standard distance as per Pipe sizes. Pipe size and distance details are provided by client.

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SHOP Drawing
See below screen shot updated pipe supports.

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Pipe Supports

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SHOP Drawing

Section Views: A section is a selected area or region of the drawing, which enable to understand for the layman also. It gives us a view of the drainage pipes and other components. Generally sections has to be made at difficult or critical locations, AHU rooms, Mechanical Rooms, Client specified location and typical waste and vent pipe connection for Fixtures. Procedure: 1. Mark the location and place the section marking in Plan view. 2. Check the Architectural drawing or Input drawings whether client was marked section at same location or provided any architectural section that particular location. 3. If it is not available prepare Architectural view with slab width and height of that particular Floor. 4. Draw the Drainage pipe Vent pipes as per Plan view Elevations.

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5. Show the pipe supports for Drainage and Vent pipes.

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SHOP Drawing

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5. Show the pipe supports for Drainage and Vent pipes. 6. Show the Bottom of Pipe levels from Soffit of Slab or Finished Floor Level.

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SHOP Drawing

See below screen shot for Marking section in Plan:

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SHOP Drawing

See below screen shot for Output Section:

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FFL +17.05

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SHOP Drawing
Standard details The standard approved details are provided by client. These details are adding in the shop drawing. See below screen shots for few Standard Details:

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Floor Drain (FD)

Funnel Floor Drain (FFD)

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SHOP Drawing
Standard details

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Roof Vent Terminal (VTR)

Floor Clean out (FCO)

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SHOP Drawing
View port creation Scaling is used to depict objects on paper that are either larger or smaller than the paper. Creation of view port is done in Paper space. Generally shop drawings in 1:50 scale and sections are 1:25 scale. View port is create by using the command MVIEW. Title Block Updating
HVAC

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Title block is provided by client as required size (A0, A1, A2 A4). Generally the title block details are...

Notes: Show the any specific notes in the Notes column related to this shop drawing. See below snap shot.
ELECTRICAL

PLUMBING

NOTES:

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SHOP Drawing

Ref. Dwg. Nos.: Update the Reference Drawing Nos. what ever the drawings are referred while preparing this shop drawing I.e. Architectural, structural, schematic, design drawing.. See below snap shot.

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REFERENCE DRG NO'S.


REFERENCE DRG NO'S. DWG.No. REV.

Key Plan: Hatching the location in key plan, the area is covered in this sheet.
PARCEL 02

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SHOP Drawing

Drawing Title: Update the Drawing Title information I.e. Floor, Level, service, Drawn By, Checked By, Approved By, Revision, Drawing Scale and Drawing No... See below snap shot.

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A B C D

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Plumbing Materials

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ANSI: ASTM: AWWA: CSA: CS: FS: NSF: FHA:

American National Standards Institute. American Society of Testing and Materials. American Water Works Association. Canadian Standards Association. Commercial Standards. Federal Specifications. NSF International. Federal Housing Authority.

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Input Drawing

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Output Drawing

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Drainage Section

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Drainage Section

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HEAT EXCHANGER ROOM

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Output Drainage Layout (3D)

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Output Drainage Layout (3D)

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Output Drainage Layout (3D)

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Output Drainage Layout (3D)

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