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Generation of harmonics Effects of harmonics Harmonic modeling, and analysis Mitigation of harmonics by passive filter Measurements of harmonics
TYPES OF LOADS
Linear time-invariant loads
These loads display constant steady state impedance during the applied Sinusoidal voltage. Incandescent lighting Rotating machines Harmonics due to non-uniform air gap and tooth ripples. Transformers Saturation in a transformer and its Inrush current contains odd and even Harmonics, including a dc component.
They draw a current that is discontinuous for a part of the sinusoidal voltage cycle. Adjustable drive systems Cycloconverters Arc furnaces Switching mode power supplies Static VAR compensators (SVCs) HVDC transmission Electric traction Wind and solar power generation Slip recovery schemes of induction motors Fluorescent lighting and electronic ballasts
flicker. harmonics. Such Non-Integral harmonic generators include: Arcing devices Arc furnaces Fluorescent. and may give rise to torsion vibrations in rotating equipment.INTEGRAL AND NON-INTEGRAL HARMONICS INTEGRAL HARMONICS A distorted waveform having a Fourier series with fundamental frequency equal to power system frequency. and sodium vapor lighting They cause phase unbalance. impact loading. and resonance. and its periodic steady state exist. mercury. NON-INTEGRAL HARMONICS A distorted waveform having sub multiples of power system frequency. . For them a trigonometric Fourier series expansion is used.
LINEAR TIMEINVARIANT LOADS Rotating machines –Variable flux path –Tooth Ripple Transformers Shunt Capacitors .
. Coil span. Phase spread 2. is not applicable and the flux density in the air gap is not sinusoidal The harmonic flux components are affected by: 1. Fractional slotting 3.VARIABLE FLUX PATH IN ELECTRICAL MACHINES Reluctance of the air gap to carry a certain flux across. Figure: Armature reaction of a threephase winding spanning a pole pitch.
. g is the number of slots per pole f is the system frequency This pulsation may be regarded as two waves rotating at angular velocity 2g in forward and backward directions. The component fields will generate harmonic emf of frequencies 2g cycles per second. The frequency of flux pulsations is given by 2gf.TOOTH RIPPLES IN ELECTRICAL MACHINES Tooth ripples in electrical machinery are produced by slotting as these affect air-gap permeance.
High-magnetic flux densities 4. . Continuous high speed switching 3. which when summed give a total peaky current.TRANSFORMERS Harmonics in transformers originate due to: 1. Winding connections Transformers are operated close to the knee point of its saturation characteristics. The third harmonic flux produce a third harmonic emf and current. A sinusoidal flux wave demands a magnetizing current with a harmonic content. Magnetic saturation 2.
Continued.1 sec). The spectrum of magnetizing inrush current resembles a rectified current. Its peak value may reach 8-15 times the transformer full-load current. and the flux wave in the transformer is flat topped. Tertiary delta-connected windings are included in wye-wye connected transformers for neutral stabilization or else as shown in the figure the neutral shifts if flux is flat topped. no third harmonic currents flow. . In wye-wye connected transformers all the third harmonics cancel between the lines. Over excitation of transformers in steady-state operation can also produce harmonics. However the inrush current lasts for a very short duration (0. The V/f factor measures the over excitation..
They can also reduce harmonic distortion. .SHUNT CAPACITORS High inrush frequencies on switching of shunt capacitors are given by F inrush = 1 / 2 pi sqrt (Leq * Ceq) Series filter reactors and switching inrush current limiting reactors reduce these frequencies The power capacitors do not generate harmonics by themselves. but are the main cause of amplification of the harmonics due to resonance . when applied as filters.
NON-LINEAR TIMEINVARIANT LOADS STATIC POWER CONVERTERS ADJUSTABLE SPEED DRIVES INVERTERS AND ELECTRIC TRACTION ARC FURNACES CYCLOCONVERTERS THYRISTOR-CONTROLLED REACTOR THYRISTOR-SWITCHED CAPACITORS PULSE WIDTH MODULATION CHOPPER CIRCUITS SLIP FREQUENCY RECOVERY SCHEMES LIGHTING BALLASTS .
These are at frequencies other than the integer multiple of the fundamental power frequency. Power converters Rectifiers Inverters ( VFDs ) Adjustable speed drives Non-characteristic harmonics are produced by sources other than power electronic. 2.STATIC POWER CONVERTERS The primary source of harmonics are: 1. 3. 4. 2. Non uniform ignition delay angles Un-balance supply voltages. They are caused by: 1. .
The efficiency of rectification is Efficiency = Pdc/Pac The form factor is a measure of the shape of the output voltage or current and is defined as. FF = Irms / Idc The ripple factor.1) . which is a measure of the ripple content of the output current or voltage RF = Sqrt (FF2.RECTIFIERS Rectified output comprises of a number integral multiples of fundamental frequency of input.
the harmonics due to chopper and inverter combine. Torque band control switching. leaving only zero & triple harmonics. with some sub harmonics In chopper inverter drive. 1. 2. 3.INVERTERS (VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES) In VFD systems. with positive and negative sequence components mitigating. PWM switching has odd and even harmonics. . the inverter frequency increases from 0Hz to 120 Hz with the motor acceleration. higher 6h & 3h harmonics are produced. Up to the motor base speed the inverter switches many times per cycle.
line commutated Current link.ADJUSTABLE SPEED DRIVES Adjustable speed drives account for the largest percentage of nonlinear loads in the industry. line commutated 1–1500 500– 20000 1000– 60000 1000– 60000 10:1 3:1 50:1 50:1 . Either the inverted back AC supply is provided to the variable-frequency drive at a regulated frequency. The dc power is then inverted back to ac. line commutated Current link. Most systems require that the incoming ac power supply to be rectified into dc. force commutated Voltage link. load commutated Phase controlled. Or the dc power is fed directly to dc drive systems through power converters. force commutated Current link. Adjustable-Speed Drive Systems Drive Motor DC Motor Squirrel-cage induction Squirrel-cage induction Wound rotor Synchronous (brushless excitation) Synchronous/squirr el cage Horse power 1–10.000 100– 4000 Speed range 50:1 10:1 Converter type Phase controlled.
and reveals a continuous spectrum of harmonic frequencies of both integer and non-integer order.2 3.37 0.54 0.1 2.157 . Large erratic reactive current swings generate voltage drops across the ac system.ARC FURNACES The harmonics produced by electric arc furnaces are not predictable due to variation of the arc feed material.60 0. The arc current is highly nonlinear.8 2. Voltage variations cause the incandescent lamps to flicker.1 Refining 0 2 0 2. resulting in irregular variation of the terminal voltage.81 0.7 5.5 Magnitude 0. h Harmonic 2 3 4 5 7 Percent Of Fundamental Melting 7.5 4.
Because of load unbalance and asymmetry between phase voltages and firing angles. .CYCLOCONVERTERS If the delay angles of the cycloconverter segments are varied so that the average is closely to the desired sinusoidal output voltage. the harmonics at the output are minimized. non characteristic harmonics are also generated.
3.1sec 4. there is one pulse per half-cycle and the width of the pulse is varied to control the inverter output voltage.PULSE WIDTH MODULATION The techniques of pulse width modulation (PWM) are: 1. 4. 2. 2. Single-pulse width modulation Multiple-pulse width modulation Sinusoidal pulse-width modulation Modified sinusoidal pulse-width modulation In a single-PWM. Modified sinusoidal PWM eliminates harmonics and generates a nearly sinusoidal voltage wave Over the years the pulse switching time of the power devices have been drastically reduced by: – – – – – 3. Sinusoidal PWM has pulse width varied in proportion to the sine wave. . 1. They reduce the rise time The harmonic content can be reduced by using several pulses in each halfcycle of the output voltage. SCR (fast thyristor) 4sec GTO (gate turn off thyristor) 1sec GTR (giant transistor) 0.2sec IGBT (power plate type) 0. The DF and the lower order harmonic magnitudes are reduced.8sec IGBT (insulated gate bipolar) 0.
Thyristor choppers are operated at fixed frequency and the chopping frequency is superimposed as the line harmonics. An input low-pass filter is normally connected to filter out the choppergenerated harmonics. .CHOPPER CIRCUITS The dc traction supply from rectifier substations have harmonics injected into the supply system as switching transients from commutation occur.
Such a system causes sub harmonics in the ac system. and the power taken by the rotor is fed into the supply system through a line commutated inverter.SLIP FREQUENCY RECOVERY SCHEMES The slip frequency recovery systems the rotor slip frequency voltage is rectified. . The ac harmonics for this type of load cannot be reduced as dc current ripple is independent of the rectifier ripple.
LIGHTING BALLASTS Lighting ballasts produce large harmonic distortions and zero sequence third harmonic currents in the neutral. . The current harmonic limits for lighting ballasts show that the limits for the newer ballasts are much lower as compared to earlier ballasts.
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