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Module 1

The Scope of Geology

RUANG LINGKUP GEOLOGI Pengertian dan cara belajar geologi Ilmu-ilmu terkait dengan geologi Sistem dalam geologi Mengapa belajar geologi?

Pengertian dan cara belajar geologi


Geology is the study of the Earth as a whole, its origin, structure, composition, and history (including the development of life), and the nature of the processes which have given rise to its present state.

Whitten, DGA and Brooks, JRV. 1977. The Penguin Dictionary of Geology. Middlesex: Penguin Books. p. 204.

Pertanyaan: Cari definisi lain dari buku-buku geologi berbahasa Inggris di Perpustakaan Pusat.

Pengertian dan cara belajar geologi


Mengikuti pendidikan kebumian Lokatama untuk belajar geologi: Perpustakaan termasuk internet Laboratorium (studio) dan museum geologi Lapangan Sebagaimana pembelajaran ilmu alam yang lain, dalam menghadapi bahan atau fenomena geologi perlu dilakukan: Observasi (pengamatan), Analisis, dan Sintesis

Pengertian dan cara belajar geologi

Perhatikan Belum dikatakan belajar geologi sebelum ke perpustakaan, laboratorium, dan lapangan (survei)! Apakah FTM UPN Veteran Yogyakarta memfasilitasi pembelajaran di 3 (tiga) lokatama termasuk museum tersebut di atas?

Corresponding science to geology


MINING ENGINEERING PETROLEUM ENGINEERING MINING GEOLOGY

GEOTHERMAL ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING

AGRICULTURE ETC.
TOURISM

TECHNOLOGY

APPLIED SCIENCES

GEOTHERMAL GEOARKEOLOGY GEOLOGY ETC. PETROLEUM ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY GEOLOGY PLANOLOGY GEOLOGY METEOROLOGY

EARTH SCIENCES

GEOLOGY
HIDROLOGY
STATISTICS MATHEMATICS

BIOLOGY

BASIC SCIENCES

PHYSICS

CHEMISTRY

Corresponding science to geology


GEOPHYSICS
GEOCHEMISTRY GEOSTATISTICS

PHYSICS
CHEMISTRY STATISTICS HIDROLOGY

GEOLOGY

HIDROGEOLOGY

PALEONTOLOGY
GEOWISATA GEOARKEOLOGI

BIOLOGY
PARIWISATA ARKEOLOGI ETC.

Pertanyaan: Mengapa muncul ilmu-ilmu antara?

The branches of geology Cabang-cabang geologi


GEOLOGY
PALEONTOLOGY MINERALOGY STRATIGRAPHY STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY TEKTONICS VOLKANOLOGY HISTORICAL GEOLOGY GEOMORFOLOGY

PETROLOGY

SPELEOLOGY

LIMNOLOGY

SEDIMENTOLOGY

ETC.

Pertanyaan: Mengapa banyak cabang-cabang geologi?

GEOSPHERE

Initially, it was an homogenous material

GEOSPHERE
ATMOSPHERE

BIOSPHERE
HYDROSPHERE SOLID EARTH (CMC-SPHERE)

Diversifications

GEOSPHERE
Dynamic equilibrium

ATMOSPHERE

BIOSPHERE

HIDROSPHERE

SOLID EARTH (CMC-SPHERE)

Why study geology?

Because geology is all around us! 1. Geological Resources 2. The Environment Environmental 3. Geological Hazards Geology (Changes posing risks) 4. Engineering 5. Landforms and Surface Processes 6. Historical Geology
Geology forms the basis of our great civilizations

Why study geology? 1. Geological Resources


The Cradle of Civilization (Fertile Crescent) Development limited by availability, e.g., soil, water, energy Conflicts based on resources, e.g., water, minerals, oil
http://encarta.msn.com/

Why study geology? 1. Geological Resources


The Cradle of Civilization sprung from geology of the region

Tigris River, Iraq

http://encarta.msn.com/

Why study geology? 2. The Environment


Misuse of geologic resources

These Maps illustrate the Fertile Crescent in 1973 (top) and 2000 (bottom). Permanent marshlands, pictured in green, have shrunk 90 percent in that period.

Illustration courtesy United Nations Environment Program

Why study geology? 2. The Environment (misuse of Geologic Resources)


desiccation of the Aral Sea, Kazakhstan

http://www.grida.no/aral/aralsea/english/arsea/arsea.htm

Why study geology? 2. The Environment (overuse of Geologic Resources)


(Geology in the News)

1.7 billion are joining the consumer class and the environment wont sustain this standard of living
(World watch Institute 2004)

Emissions of Greenhouse gasses is accelerating global warming Climate change is accelerating melting of glaciers and driving mass extinctions
(The Centre of Biodiversity and Conservation, Leeds University, UK)

Why study geology? 3. Geologic Hazard


(San Andreas Fault)

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003

Two die in 6.5 magnitude Earthquake near San Lois Obispo California Earthquake triggers mudslides

Assessing Risks Avoiding Risks Preventing Damage Predicting Impact

Major Quake Likely to Strike San Francisco Bay Region Between 2003 and 2032

http://quake.wr.usgs.gov/research/seismology/wg02/

Why study geology? 3. Geologic Hazards (Geology in the News)

Why study geology? 3. Geologic Hazards


(Earthquake in Bam Bam, Iran)

A Magnitude 6.5 Earthquake hits a stone- and mud-house city of 100,000 in Iran 12-26-03 30,000 Dead 30,000 Refugees US sends aid and releases sanctions Relations improved

Photos from AP

Why study geology? 3. Geologic Hazards (Geology in the News)


Volcanoes Mass Movement

Earthquakes

Why study geology? 4. Geology in Engineering


Slope Failure Risk Assessment and Control

To prevent slope failure engineers must understand the geology that forms and controls the slope

Why study geology? 4. Geology in Engineering The Leaning Tower Straightens Up


In Pisa the tilted one is back in business after an 11-year effort to keep it from collapsing
Committee member John Burland, an engineer, promoted soil extraction as the best way to save the tower.

Engineers use knowledge of geology to design, protect and correct structures

www.smithsonianmag.si.edu

Why study geology? 5. Landforms and Surface Processes


H.C. Berann (1915-1999) Yosemite National Park, 1987

Glaciers Mass Wasting Streams Shorelines Deserts Groundwater

http://www.berann.com

Why study geology? 6. Historical Geology

Sub Disciplines Areas of Study Which Rely on Geology

Environmental Geology
Environmental Sciences: how we influence the earth Geologic Hazards: how geology influences us

Engineering Geology
Geologic Materials Foundations Geotechnical engineering

Sub Disciplines (cont.) Areas of Study Which Rely on Geology

Geological Resources
Locating and characterizing amounts and quality Extracting and Understanding environmental effects of extraction and use (misuse, overuse) of resources

Historical Geology
Deciphering Earth History and Evolution of life

Dengan demikian geologi digunakan dimana saja?

I WONDER