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Measures any physical quantity/motion into elecrical signal which can

read by observer or instrument.

Hall effect application

1. I C engine ignition timing 2.

Spark ignition

3. Tachometers 4. Anti-lock braking systems 5. Brushless DC electric motors

Speedometer: A speedometer meter is a gauge that measures and displays the instantaneous speed of a automobile vehicle. Speedometer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction, gearing from the final drive ratio that's transferred to the speedometer via a flexible cable. One way to transfer this to a speedometer is to have the end of that cable, perhaps via additional gearing, drive a magnet.... basically, functioning as a small generator. This, in turn, creates an electrical current that moves a needle against a counter-balancing spring. The faster the magnet spins, the more current is generated, and thus, the father the needle can move against the spring.

Crank position sensor is an electronic device used in an I C

engine to monitor the position or rotational speed of the crankshaft. This information is used by engine management systems to control ignition system timing and other engine parameters. It is also commonly used as the primary source for the measurement of engine speed in revolutions per minute. Common mounting locations include the main crank pulley, the flywheel, the camshaft or on the crankshaft itself. This sensor is the most important sensor in modern day engines. When it fails, there is a chance the engine will not start, or cut out while running. The functional objective for the crankshaft position sensor is to determine the position and/or rotational speed (RPM) of the crank

Throttle position sensor (TPS) is a sensor used to monitor the position of the throttle in an internal combustion engine. The sensor is usually located on the butterfly spindle so that it can directly monitor the position of the throttle. More advanced forms of the sensor are also used, for example an extra closed throttle position sensor (CTPS) may be employed to indicate that the throttle is completely closed. Oxygen sensor is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analyzed used to determine the air-fuel ratio. Modern spark-ignited combustion engines use oxygen sensors and catalytic converters in order to reduce exhaust emissions. Information on oxygen concentration is sent to the engine management computer or ECU, which adjusts the amount of fuel injected into the engine to compensate for excess air or excess fuel. The ECU attempts to maintain, on average, a certain air fuel ratio by interpreting the information it gains from the oxygen sensor.

Torque sensor is a device for measuring and recording the torque on a rotating system, such as an engine, crankshaft ,gearbox ,transmission , rotor, a bicycle crank or Cap Torque Tester. One way to measure dynamic torque the shaft or a member attached to the shaft with a series of permanent magnetic domains. Such magneto-elastic torque sensors are generally used for in-vehicle applications on racecars, automobiles, aircraft, and hovercraft.

Knock sensor Engine knock is characteristic of an

uncontrolled combustion process and can cause engine damage. That is prevented by a knock sensor, a noise sensor near the engine. The Knock Sensor is a Piezo Electric device that when you stress it, a voltage is produced. It senses knock and transmits information to the electronic engine management control unit. This influences process control in the engine, for example timing and fuel injection until knock is eliminated. Knock is frequently caused by fuel that does not comply with the required minimum quality.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Spark ignition circuit Lighting circuit Horn circuit Temperature gauge Speedometer & Tachometer Fuel gauge Starter switch & kill switch

Coolant temperature sensor is used to measure the

temperature of the engine coolant of an internal combustion engine. The readings from this sensor are then fed back to the Engine control unit(ECU). This data from the sensor is then used to adjust the fuel injection and ignition timing. On some vehicles the sensor may be used to switch on the electronic cooling fan. The data may also be used to provide readings for a coolant temperature gauge on the dash. The coolant temperature sensor works using resistance. As temperature subjected to the sensor increases the internal

It works on the principle of electomagnetic induction.