(Union of Physics and Mathematics).  began modern science by suggesting that the working natural phenomena could be described exactly in mathematical formulae. This transformed the basic assumption and methodology of the natural sciences and distinguishes it radically from religious and philosophical thought. .

In New Atlantic (1627) he argued for the usefulness of scientific knowledge in giving man mastery over nature. in Novum Organum (1620) elaborated a sophisticated method of establishing scientific truths using observation and experiment to test hypotheses. .

ergo sum) he ended up with dualism between mind and matter.    considered the Father of modern philosophy attempted to establish a philosophical system based on the first principles alone on mathematical logic. Employing systematic doubt (Cogito. Clarity and distinctness of ideas establish their truth independently of experience (res cogitans) Physical world is governed by deterministic laws (res extensa) .

. This is a direct attack on the theory that a king rules by divine right. a Spanish Jesuit argued in his On Laws (1612) that a contract between a ruler and subject was the basis of sovereignty.

. In Leviathan (1655) argued that in a state of nature men will fight because of their natural selfishness. They could only escape through a contract whereby they renounce freedom to a sovereign supreme leader.

 In 1609. The year before that the telescope was invented by the Dutchman. . Kepler’s Astronomia Nova argued that planets moved around the sun in ellipses and at varying speed. Hans Lippershey.

By studying the valves he realized that blood must flow in one direction only. . This mechanics view complemented Galileo’s mechanistic universe. demonstrated the circulation of the blood. In 1628.

 In 1642.  . i.. that chance can be measured. invented an adding machine.e. discovered the principles of hydraulics and investigated the theory of probability.

 In 1654 the Magdeburg experiment in which two teams of horses tried and failed to separate two-emptied hemisphere demonstrated the power of air pressure. . This will later be harnessed in the first steam engine.

 . experimented on the physical properties of air and formulated his law on the relationship between pressure and volume of gas.


. the tradition of rationalism produced a restrained classicism in the works of Nicholas Poussin.

85 x 121 cm.Les Bergers d’Arcadie. Rome. Rape of the Sabine Women. It is said that Poussin never painted a subject taken from later than the 12th century. 159 x 206 cm. oil on canvas. oil on canvas. late 1630s. Louvre . 1637-38. Louvre.

1630.The Plague at Ashdod. oil on canvas. Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts . 116 x 150 cm. 1640. oil on canvas. 148 x 198 cm. Louvre Museum The Continence of Scipio.

oil on canvas.5 cm.Poussin's Tancred and Erminia (early 1630s. 1635) .5 x 146. 98. Hermitage Museum) shows an evolution from Poussin's early emulation of Caravaggio to a return to classicism. Helios and Phaeton with Saturn and the Four Seasons (c.

. whose psychological insight and technical virtuosity. Dutch art found its greatest painter in Rembrandt. produced the “Nightwatch” (1642). with chiaroscuro. esp.

on display at the Rijksmuseum. Oil on canvas. Amsterdam. 1642. The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq. .

 showed realism and superlative handling of color in “Las Meninas” (1656) .

 Las Meninas (1656. English: The Maids of Honour) .


. The Amati. Stradivari and Guarneri families from 16501740 perfected violin in Italy. The violin made its appearance in 1612 as part of the 24piece court band. later increased to 35 players.

 Fugue developed principally in Germany as a contrapuntal treatment of one main theme.  A six-part fugue from The Musical Offering. in the hand of Johann Sebastian Bach.  .


. whose plays and sonnets epitomize the innovation and humanism of the Renaissance.

reason and passion were best combined in the love and devotional poems of John Donne (16221631). Later English poetry reflected the political and religious conflict between Puritans and the Royalists. . wit. Erudition.

Don Quixote de la Mancha .

An interest in classical models produced the tightly organized psychological dramas of Corneille (16081684) . an effort to systematize the rules of language and literature was made by the Academic Francaise. In France.

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