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A Discussion on Different Techniques used in Turbulence Modeling
Reni Raju
2
Topics Covered
Concept
Definition
Methods of Solving Turbulent Equations
Navier Stokes Equation
Models
3
Turbulence
Examples:
Wake of a water near the columnn of a
bridge.
Dispersion of Smoke in the atmosphere.
4
Definition
A Fluid motion in which velocity,pressure, and other flow quantities
fluctuate irregularly in time and space.
“Turbulent Fluid motion is an irregular condition of flow in which
the various quantities show a random variation with time and space
coordinates, so that statistically distinct average values can be
obsevered.”
 Hinze
“Turbulence is due to the formation of point or line vortice on which
some component of the velocity becomes infinite.:”
Jean Leray
5
Methods for Solving
Turbulent Equations
DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION
(DNS)
LARGEEDDY SIMULATION
(LES)
REYNOLDS AVERAGED NAVIERSTOKES
(RANS)
6
Navier Stokes Equation
0 =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
z
w
y
v
x
u
For a Steady, Incompressible Fluid the
Continuity and xmomentum equations
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
z
u
y
u
x
u
dx
dp
x
u
w
x
u
v
x
u
u
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+ ÷ =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
µ
7
For turbulent flow,
) ( ' ) ( t u u t u + =
The time averages,
  0 ) ( '
1
) (
1
' = = ÷ =
} }
+ +
dt t u
T
dt u t u
T
u
T t
t
T t
t
8
Time averaged Navier Stokes Equation


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
÷


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+ ÷ =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
z
w u
y
v u
x
u
z
u
y
u
x
u
v
dx
dp
z
u
w
y
u
v
x
u
u
' ' ' ' 1
2 '
2
2
2
2
2
2
µ
For all the Three Momentum Equation
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
=
) ' ( ) ' ' ( ) ' ' (
) ' ' ( ) ' ( ) ' ' (
) ' ' ( ) ' ' ( ) ' (
2
2
2
w v w w u
w v v u v
w u v u u
zz zy zx
yz yy yx
xz xy xx
ij
t t t
t t t
t t t
t
9
Turbulence Models
Integral Method
EddyViscosity Models
ZeroEquation Models
OneEquation Models
Two Equation Models
Reynolds Stress Models
10
1.Integral Method
Advantages
Computational Simplicity and Ease.
Useful for same kind of flow.
Easy to interpolate with experimental bench marks.
Disadvantages
Lack of Flexibility.
11
2.Eddy Viscosity models
For 2D incompressible boundary layer
equation
Momentum Equation,
y
u
v y
v
dx
dp
y
u
v
x
u
u
c
c

.

\

+
c
c
+ ÷ =
c
c
+
c
c c
µ
1
1
y
u
v u
c
c
= ÷ c ' '
y
u
v u
c
c
÷
=
' '
c
or
12
(a) ZEROEQUATION MODELS


.

\

c
c
=
y
u
l l
i
. c
}
÷ =
o
c
0
0
) ( 0168 . 0 dy u u
e
13
(a) ZEROEQUATION MODELS
Advantages
Simplest of Models satisfying the requirements.
Disadvantages
Some ad hoc assumptions have to be made regarding boundary layer and
velocity.
14
(b) ONEEQUATION MODELS
   
2
2 2 2 2
2
) ( 1
2
) ( 1
2 2
l
q
r Cv
x
u
S v
y
q
r
y
v
y
q
v
x
q
u
i
i
ij
ì c c ì c + ÷
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
=
=
+ +
=
i
j
j
i
ij
x
u
x
u
S
w v u q
where
2
1
,
2
' ' '
2
2 2 2 2
v
c
c
Turbulence Kinetic Energy
Dimensionless Turbulent Viscosity
Mean Strain Rate
15
(b) ONEEQUATION MODELS
Advantages
Additional assumptions can be avoided.
Break from the equilibrium concepts in a practical consderation.
Disadvantages
The length scale is still a algebraic quantity.
Computationally more difficult.
16
(c) TWOEQUATION MODELS
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

c
c
+ ÷
(
(
¸
(
¸
c
c


.

\

+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
2
2 / 1
2
j j k
T
j j
i
ij
j
j
x
k
x
k
x x
u
x
k
u µ µc
o
µ
µ µt µ
2
2
2
2 2
2 1
2


.

\

c
c
+ ÷
(
(
¸
(
¸
c
c


.

\

+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
x
u
k
C
x x x
u
k
C
x
u
T
j
T
j j
i
ij
j
j
µ
µµ µc c
o
µ
µ t
c c
µ
c
Turbulence K.E.
Dissipation Rate
17
(c) TWOEQUATION MODELS
Advantages
Overcomes the short comings of zero and one equation model.
Disadvantages
Not appropriate to use in a viscous sublayer.
Still need to make assumptions.
18
3.Reynolds Stress Models
Advantages
More General than EddyViscosity Models.
Better Prediction for flow with sudden changes.
Possible Ultimate turbulence models.
Disadvantages
None of the equations can be solved exactly.
Computational difficulty because of more no. of PDE.
19
Causes of Turbulent Motion .
Steady State.
Mass Weighted averaging.
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