The cutting room has a greater effect on excessive manufacturing costs than any other department concerned with the actual production of garments. Internal costs – those incurred in the cutting room itself. External costs – those incurred by other departments as a result of the malfunctions of the cutting room.
Labour : Effective utilisation
Material : 40% to 50% of the cost price of most of the mass produced clothing and largest cost component of a garment Efficiency
The factors influencing materials untilisation
Coordination Defects Matching Accuracy Sewing Shading Quality
Production Process in the Cutting room
Planning Spreading Cutting Preparation for sewing
Production process in the Cutting Room Spreads Planning Markers Production Manual Spreading Machine Machine Cutting Die Press Computer Shade marking Preparation for sewing Ticketing Bundles
Cut order planning
It translates customer orders into cutting orders. and cutting to minimize total production costs and meet customer demand for timely products. equipment. It is the process that coordinates customer orders with all the variables of marker making. spreading. fabric and space.
. It seeks most effective use of labor.
and sectioning procedures for marker making Determining whether file markers are available or new ones are needed Developing specifications for optimum marker making and fabric utilization Determine most effective use of spreading and cutting equipment and personnel Issuing orders for marker making. spreading and cutting
. size ratios.Responsibilities of Cut Order Planning
Examining incoming orders and piece goods width and availability Determining volume.
Most common considerations
Number of sizes in order Number of colors in order Max/min number of sizes allowed in marker Maximum spread length Maximum ply height Percentage of overcut or undercut units Fabric cost per yard Usable cloth width Width variation Common lines among pattern pieces Costs of marking markers. bundling Fabric roll change time
. cutting. spreading.
Results of Cut Order Planning
Cutting Orders Leads to
Marker planning is to determine the most efficient combination of sizes and shades for each order and to produce the best fabric yield and equipment utilization Lay is a stack of fabric plies that have been prepared for cutting Lay planning is the basis of managing cutting room labor and table space
Marker Making is the process of determining the most efficient layout of pattern pieces for a specified style. fabric. and distribution of sizes (requires time. skill and concentration)
Marker is a diagram of a precise arrangement of pattern pieces for a specific style and the sizes to be cut from a single spread.
Computerized marker making
They are planned in continuous marker. Blocked or sectioned markers contain all of the pattern pieces for one style in one or two sizes. Continuous markers contain all the pattern pieces for all sizes included in a single cutting.Dimentions of marker
Markers are made to fit the cuttable widths of fabrics.
. Splice marks are points in marker where fabric can be cut and the next piece overlapped to maintain a continuous spread.
Types of Markers
Open marker – Marker made with full pattern pieces
Closed Marker – marker made with half garment parts pieces for laying along the folds of the tube (tubular knit)
Is determined by the symmetry and directionality of fabric.
Nap either way (N/E/W) Nap one way (N/O/W) Nap up and down (N/U/D)
. pattern pieces can be placed on a marker with only consideration for grainline N/O/W – all the pattern pieces be placed on a marker in only one direction N/U/D – all patterns pieces of one size to be placed in one direction and another size placed in opposite direction.The term Nap is used to indicate the fabric is directional. non directional fabrics. eg. N/E/W –with symmetric.
The requirements of quality cutting 3. The requirements of production planning
. Nature of the fabric and the desired result in the finished garment Pattern alignment in relation to the grain of the fabric Symmetry and asymmetry The design characteristic of the finished garment 2.Requirements of marker planning
Area of patterns in the marker plan X 100% Total area of the marker plan
It is determined by fabric utilization
etc Grain Orientation Fabric utilization standards – 90 to 97% which lead to 80 -85% achievement
. adjusting and modifying grainline.Factors effecting marker efficiency
Fabric characteristics Characteristics of Pattern pieces splitting pattern pieces and creating a seam . hemwidth. reducing seam allowances.
The process of drawing or printing pattern pieces or markers on paper so they can be reviewed or cut.
Duplications of marker
Carbon duplicating – small no. of copies only are made (6–8) Spirit duplicating or hectograph carbon system – uses alcohol and it is a messy process many copies can be produced Diazo photographic method – the master marker and light sensitive paper passes under high intensity ultra violet light and the light sensitive paper is developed using amonia
Spreading is the processes of superimposing lengths of fabric on a spreading table cutting table or specially designed surface in preparation for the cutting process A spread or lay-up is the total amount of fabric prepared for a single marker.
Spreading mode is the manner in which fabric plies are laid out for cutting Direction of the fabric: it may be positioned in two ways face-to-face (F/F) or with all plies facing-one-way (F/O/W) Direction of the Fabric Nap: it may be positioned nap-one-way (N/O/W) or napup-down
F/F N/U/D F/O/W N/U/D
Requirements of Spreading process
Shade sorting of cloth pieces Correct ply direction and adequate lay stability Alignment of plies Correct ply tension Elimination of fabric faults Elimination of static electricity Avoidance of distortion in the spread Avoidance of fusion of plies during cutting
.Setup for spreading
Verifying cutting orders Positioning materials Preparing cutting tables Preparing machines Loading machine Reloading and delay time may use upto 70% of the time required for the entire spreading operation.
Methods of spreading
Spreading by hand Spreading using a travelling machine (100 to 150 yards per minute)
Fabric control devices
Tensioning involves synchronizing the rate of spreading with the rate fabric is unrolled Positioning devices and sensors monitor position and control fabric placement during spreading. (to improve quality in spreading) Width indicators may sound an alarm to alert the operator when fabric becomes narrower wthan the established width End treatment device are used with spreaders but are separate and placed at the end of the spread (end catcher and folding blade)
.The nature of fabric packages
Open fabric – rolled Tubular knitted fabric – rolled Folded fabric – rolled Folded fabric – cuttled Velvet .
Labour cost Fabric Waste
loss occurs with excessive overlap at splice
marks End loss occurs when the spreader reaches the end of the marker and fabric must be cut from the roll or folded back for the return lap Width loss occurs when the fabric is wider than the marker and the extra fabric is not used
Cut order plan
Cutting room manager issues lays to satisfy two requirements:
targets given in the cutting schedule The most economic batch size (economic cut quantity)
Overview of economic cut quantity factors.
Width of fabric Number of sizes Marker Type Contract details Essential laying losses ECONOMIC CUT QUANTITIES Sewing room needs Production rates Disruptions CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS Delivery deadlines Labour costs Material availability
Fabric Properties Quality constraints Equipment constraints