Field Effect Transistors and their applications

Types of Field Effect Transistors

There are Junction FETs (JFET) and Insulated gate FETs (IGFET)

There are many types of IGFET. Most common is the MOSFET: Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET.

A silicon atom (Si)

? Si ?

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Has 4 outer electrons The outer electron shell needs 8 to be “full” (standing wave pattern)

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Silicon will try to lend or borrow 4

Silicon (group 4) bonds Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si .

A pure silicon crystal lattice .

An Arsenic atom (As) Has 5 outer electrons ? One surplus for fitting in to the lattice As ? ? .

Arsenic doping (group 5) – N type Si Si As Si Si Si Si Si Si As Si Si .

A Gallium atom (Ga) ? ? Ga ? ? ? Has 3 outer electrons One short for fitting in to the lattice .

Gallium doping (group 3) – P type Si + Si Ga Si Si Si Si + Si Si Si Ga Si Holes are positive .

A P-N Junction (N on left) N Type Si Si Si Si As Depleted Si Si Si Si + P Type Si Si Si Si As Si Si Si Si Ga Si Ga Si Si Si Si Si As Si Si Si Si Ga Si Si Si + Ga Si Si Si Si As Si Si Si Si + Si Si Si Si Si Si Ga Si Si Si Si Si Si As Si Si Si As Si Si As Si Ga Si Si Si + Ga Si Si Si Si As Si Si Si Si + Si Si Si Si Ga Si Ga Si Si Si Si Si Si As Si .

What causes the depletion? • Electrons move from left to right to fill the + holes • Where electrons and holes combine the area is “depleted” of current carriers • This leaves the left (N Type) positive so eventually this prevents the depletion spreading any more. • Applying negative to N type replaces the depleted carriers and the current resumes (Forward biased diode) • Applying positive to the N type removes more electrons and increases the depletion. Almost no current flows. (Reverse biased diode) .

The junction transistor Emitter (-) Electrons Collector (+) N P Base N Electrons are negative  (Original patent used point contact) .

NPN Transistor circuits • Common base • Emitter follower (common collector) • Common emitter Collector Base Emitter .

A Planar NPN junction transistor Collector Base Emitter N P N .

Most common is the MOSFET: Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET. .Types of Field Effect Transistors There are Junction FETs (JFET) and Insulated gate FETs (IGFET) There are many types of IGFET.

An Insulated Gate FET Source Gate Drain NType Substrate P Type Insulator Metal .

Field Effect Transistors come in 4 forms N Channel (as an NPN transistor or Valve) P Channel (as a PNP transistor) N and P channel each come as: Enhancement mode (just IGFET) Depletion mode (IGFET or JFET) .

Transistor symbols N type enhancement IGFET Drain Gate Source Gate N type Junction FET Drain Source Base Emitter NPN junction transistor Collector P type enhancement IGFET Gate Source Drain P type Junction FET Gate Source Drain PNP junction transistor Emitter Base Collector .

In an IC the substrate can be separate P type enhancement N type enhancement P type enhancement external substrate N type enhancement external substrate P type depletion N type depletion P type depletion external substrate N type depletion external substrate .

Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor N Channel Enhancement mode Source Gate Drain NType Substrate P Type Insulator Metal .

N channel enhancement IGFET turned on Source Gate + Drain Channel NType Substrate P Type Insulator Metal .

N enhance FET at Pinchoff Source Gate + Drain + Channel NType Substrate P Type Insulator Metal .

N enhance FET beyond Pinchoff Source Gate + Drain++ Channel NType Substrate P Type Insulator Metal .

L BSS 145 N channel enhancement FET output curves Curve L = 10v gate Mostly resistive Curve A = 2.5v gate Mostly constant current (pinchoff) A .

N channel Depletion mode FET ON – No gate bias Source Gate Drain Channel NType Substrate P Type Insulator Metal .

N channel Depletion mode FET off Source Gate Drain NoChannel NType Substrate P Type Insulator Metal .

An application: The SoftRock Receiver .

FETs in the SoftRock Receiver The I & Q generator uses 4 D type Flip Flops 74HC74 The dual I/Q Mixer uses an FST 3253 dual 4 way multiplexer switch These all use logic circuits built with FETs Lets look at basic logic .

Logic circuits By combining together enough NAND gates you can build anything digital. So that includes computers. Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET (We will add an inverter to make an AND gate too) . (However some other bits may make life easier) We will look at how to make the Flip Flops used in the I / Q generator another time. So lets look at a CMOS NAND gate.

An AND gate (NAND + Inverter) NAND A B AND .

Simulated AND gate waveforms AND NAND B A .

NAND gate IC Layout (From Wikimedia commons) .

SoftRock Receiver .

SoftRock Receiver I LO Inphase and Quadrature Generator Q Mixers RF Filter (Balanced Output omitted) IF Filters Stereo Output .

LTSpice model of SoftRock Receiver .

LTSpice output of SoftRock model .

Questions? .

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