Principles and Practices of Management

Humphrey Mokaya

Definition of Management
• For our purposes, management is conceived as:
– Taking place within a structured project /organizational setting, with prescribed roles – Directed towards the attainment of aims and objectives and outcomes – Achieved through the efforts of human capacity – Using systems, processes and procedures

providing material and human resources.examining the future.Common Activities of Management • Planning. deciding on what needs to be achieved and developing an action plan • Control-checking actual performance • Organizing.ensuring results and maximum return from employees . plus the structure • Coordinating.ensuring smooth running of activities • Command.

Division of Labour • Based on the fact that specialization increases efficiency • Increases total production by simplifying tasks • Improves capacity in concentrated form pegged to individual potential and inclinations • Avoids conflicts of interest and duplication of effort .

Authority and Responsibility • Refers to the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience • Entails being accountable • Presupposes that citizens will hold management accountable for the public good • Emphasizes that office is not personal property: but that office is held in public trusteeship .

Discipline • Implies that members follow the rules and regulations that govern the organization/project • Results from exemplary leadership • Includes fairness and rewarding superior performance • Pegged to willingness to penalize errant behavior .

Unity of Command • States that each organization member receives orders from one superior: lessens confusion • Is a key instrument in fostering mentoring and coaching in organizations/projects • Provides essential impetus for supervision • Is central in controlling activities .

Unity of Direction • States that different officers should deal with specific issues in organizations • Recognizes the fact departments/units may have different procedures and regulations • Entails rational planning • Is fundamental in ensuring delegation in organizations .

emphasizes the generation of sacred cows. the syndrome of sycophancy and the “BIG MAN” phenomenon .Subordination of Individual Interest to Common Good • Argues that the interest of one employee should not prevail over the interests of others • Is key to fostering equity and equality in organizations • De.

Remuneration • Argues that compensation should be fair both to the employee and the organization/project • Asks managers have fair rewards for human capital • Is instrumental in motivating workers • Is crucial in retaining productive workers • Calls upon organizations to reward harmoniously across cadres .

Scalar Chain • There should be a clear chain of command from the top to the bottom of the organization/project • All employees should follow the chain of command • Ensures orderly flow of information and is consistent with the unity of command principle .

Order • States that materials and people should be at the right time and place • Underpins efficiency in organizational performance • Is basic in removing conflicts in work performance • Is a factor in forging organizational values. character and image .

promotions. transfers. rewards. and succession management .Equity • Simply asks managers to treat workers equally and fairly • Without this principle workers do not feel like they belong which leads to indiscipline and general organizational lethargy • Applies to training.

Stability of Personnel Tenure • High turn over of employees should be avoided • In case there is high turn over investigations should be carried to establish the cause(s) .

harmony and a sense of unity .Initiative and Team Spirit • Managers should give workers freedom to air their views without harassment • Managers should be open minded in order to encourage free thinking • Management should encourage team spirit.

refers to the interpersonal skills: exercise of judgment • Conceptual ability.application of specific knowledge to tasks • Social and human skills.to review the complexities of the operations of the organization as a whole • Meta skills.Attributes of good managers • Technical skills.applied in situation specific skills (larger picture phenomenon) .

Factors that influence style of management • The business of the organization and its philosophy • The organizational structure • Activities and methods of performance • The nature and attributes of people employed • The level or echelon of the manager in the organization .

is in existence by virtue of his position of the organization • Liaison role.involves the family in horizontal relationships with individuals and groups within and without of the organization .Roles of managers • Figure head role.manager is the symbol and represents the organizations image • Leader role.

Contd… • Monitor role.disseminates information within and without of the organization .seeks and receives information – helps the manager to develop an understanding of the workings in the organization • Disseminator role.

Contd… • Entrepreneurial role.manager resolves problems arising from unforeseen circumstance .manager plans and initiates change through exploiting opportunities or solving problems • Disturbance handler role.

manager uses authority to decide how resources and effort will be expended • Negotiator role.manager negotiates on behalf of the organization with partners outside the organization/project .Contd… • Resource allocator role.

.Questions for discussion • List six major challenges that managers normally encounter while offering services in the public sector. • Proffer practical strategies for dealing with each of these challenges.

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