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Nanocoat Finishing of Polyester/Cotton Fabrics by the Sol-Gel Method

S. K. Faiz DFT IV

• A serious drawback of the commonly used textiles of polyester/cotton fibres blends (PET/CO), especially those containing worse cotton brands, is their great susceptibility to form pilling, which adversely affects their performance durability and aesthetic values. Among the many methods of preventing this phenomenon, the thincoating finishing performed by sol-gel methods provides interesting possibilities in this field.

especially abrasion intensity/ abrasive forces. the component’s contents.• The intensity of pilling depends on the characteristics of fibres constituting the composition of the blend. in which. cross-linked hybrid inorganicorganic materials are formed directly on the surface of the fabrics undergoing finishing by the sol-gel method. instead of organic polymers. New possibilities in this area are created by the use of coat finishing for textile fabrics. great opportunities are created by coating finishes that consist in depositing on protective polymeric coats on the fibre/fabric surface. . as well as on the conditions of fabric use. and the humidity and temperature of the environment. • Within the scope of chemical treatment. the yarn and fabric structures.

• At the transition point (gel point) the sol becomes a rigid. • . • Sols are dispersions of colloidal particles in a liquid.Sol-gel The sol-gel process: A process in which a solution or sol undergoes a sol-gel transition. interconnected network (gel) with pores of sub micrometer dimensions and polymeric chains whose length is greater than a micrometer. The solid colloidal particles (nanoparticles) have a diameter of 1 – 100 nm. usually an organic solvent such as ethanol.


pH value. Sols prepared in this way are deposited on fibres/fabrics and dried at an elevated temperature to condense them into cross-linked lyogels containing a considerable content of liquid phase. temperature and concentration are of primary importance for the structure of particles and their dimensions. the precursor is converted into sol.from appropriately selected precursors.• This technique is based on the preparation of colloidal suspensions . mostly metal oxides or organometallic compounds such as metal or semimetal silicon-containing alkoxides. such as the solvent type. These compounds.sols . which are subjected to hydrolysis in an acidic medium. . As a result of these reactions. are converted into corresponding hydroxides that are unstable and susceptible to further condensation processes resulting in the formation of particles with nanometer dimensions. • The conditions used in the synthesis of nanosols.

It has been found that under thermal conditions permissible for textiles. cross-linked gel coat. whose mechanical properties depend on the intensity of thermal treatment . causing no fabric damage due to thermal polymer destruction.e. .• During further drying. the liquid phase is removed and a porous layer is formed on the fibre surface. treatment temperature and duration. i.e. Further treatment at elevated temperatures and the progressing polycondensation convert this layer into a physically and possibly chemically combined. the coat is cross-linked to an extent corresponding to that of xerogels. i.

amounting to 200-500 nm. Moreover. as well as conditions for the deposition and thermal cross-linking of such modified sols on textiles. their very low thickness. one can obtain hard protective coatings imparting increased abrasion resistance to them. . makes it possible to maintain the ’textile’ character of the fabrics. e.g. Al2O3. The xerogel coats obtained in this way show several properties that make them suitable for wear resistant finishing and protection against pilling. Such coatings are characterised by a high hardness and abrasion resistance. sol synthesis conditions and doping suitable functional nanoparticles.• By proper selection of precursors.

. Good results can be obtained by modifying silica sols with epoxysilanes such as (3-glycidoxypropyl) trimethoksysilane (GPTMS). thus increasing its mechanical resistance. The addition of this compound increases the adhesion of the nanosol coat to the fibre surface. This makes it possible to synthesise sols containing particles with functional groups capable of reacting and forming chemical bonds with functional groups present on the fibre surface.• The force of the coat combination with the fibre surface can be increased by using properly selected organo-silica precursors in the synthesis of sols. mostly –OH groups (in the case of cotton fibres).


c) Preparation of hybrid modified SiO2/Al2O3 sol This sol was prepared by the combination of sols (a) and (b).Preparation of sols • a) Preparation of modified SiO2 sol with the use of GPTMS as a precursor Silica sol modified with glycidoxy groups is prepared by the hydrolysis of GPTMS in a water-alcohol medium at a temperature of about 80oC while stirring with a high-speed stirrer for about 2 h until a transparent colloidal solution was obtained. which was intensively stirred at 20-25 °C. followed by the addition (as a stabilising agent) of a small amount of poly(vinyl alcohol) – (POCH S. • • .A.). b) Preparation of Al2O3 sol based on aluminium isopropoxide Al(OCH(CH3)2)3 Al2O3 sol is prepared by precursor with a mixture of ethanol and water (in a molar proportion of 1:1) using a high-speed stirrer for about 2 h at a temperature of about 80 °C (boiling point of EtOH). after which time the pH value of the mixture was set at 3 by means of hydrochloric acid. The mixing was continued until a homogeneous transparent colloidal solution was obtained. The resultant stable and transparent sol was used for padding fabrics after its dilution with water in the proportion 1:20.

85% • The padded fabric samples were dried at a temperature of 60 °C and then heated at 160 °C for 1 min . drying and heating The film-forming sols containing functional nanoparticles were applied on the fabric surface by padding with the use of a laboratory two-roller padding machine with a horizontal position of the squeeze rollers.Preparation of sol-gel coats • Deposition of sols on fabric samples. • Pressure: 15 kG/cm • Padding rate: 1 m/min • Pick-up of liquor: 70 .

as confirmed by the unchanged coat condition even after five fold laundering .• The hybrid xerogel coats made on the fibre surface form a continuous and uniform covering thereof and are characterised by a high elasticity and resistance to chipping as well as by a very good combination with the fibre surface. .

is determined by Martindale test & Wyzenbeek test.Testing • The high resistance to abrasion and pilling of hybrid xerogel coat finishing and its durability in use and care conditions (after multiple washing processes). .

• A circular specimen. is rubbed against an abrasive medium (standard wool fabric) in a translational movement.000 every 5.000 rubs.000 and every 10. mounted in a specimen holder and subjected to a defined load.000 above 40.000 & 20.000. The normal end point of the test is when two threads are broken or in the case of pile fabrics when the pile has completely worn off. The test is also known as the Rub Test and it tests for abrasion. every 2.000 between 5.000 between 20.” .000 & 40.Martindale Rub Test • Martindale Rub Test results are used to check fabrics for their durability and suitability for various uses such as domestic furniture and contract furniture. The inspection interval is dependent on the end point of the fabric and is usually every 1. the specimen holder being additionally freely rotatable around its own axis perpendicular to the plane of the specimen.000 up to 5.


Using The Martindale Rub Test To Specify Fabric • If we are specifying a fabric in a contract environment then we look closely at the Martindale or rub test rating of our fabric.000 rubs • LD = Light domestic – 15.000 rubs • SD = Severe domestic/general contract – 30.000 rubs • SC = Severe contract Abrasion performance – 40. The following is the intended duty of the fabric: • OD = Occasional domestic – 6.000 rubs • HD = Heavy domestic – 25.000 rubs • GD = General domestic – 20.000 rubs . This measures abrasion and simulates wear and tear.

upholstery. . the Wyzenbeek method is used to test clothing. leather.Wyzenbeek Test • The Wyzenbeek abrasion test is used primarily in North America. the test method has been modified to measure how all types of materials will withstand wear. automotive interiors and floor covering. In its various iterations. Originally developed to determine the ability of automotive tires to withstand abrasion.


• 15.000 cycles = general contract • 30. The number of double rub cycles achieved before two yarn breaks occur or noticeable wear is observed is recorded as the fabric’s abrasion rating.Test Method A Wyzenbeek machine is used for this test allowing sample of the test fabric to be pulled tight in a frame and help stationary.000 cycles = heavy duty contract . Individual test specimens cut from the warp and weft direction are then rubbed back and forth using an approved fabric as the abradant.

References • FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe 2011. 19.pdf . martindale-rub-test-upholstery.kothea. • http://www.