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finite linear combinations of elements of

S.

Thm : [S] is a subspace of

V for any nonempty set S of

V.

Trivial linear combination

then linear combination

α u + α u +,...,+α u

1 1 2 2 n n

Nontrivial linear

combination

If at least one of αi’s is not zero,

thenα u1

+ α1

u + ,...,

2

+α

2

u n n

combination

Linearly Dependent and Independent

Set

1 2 n

}

Is said to linearly

independent if

α1u1 + α 2u2 +,...,+α nun = 0V

⇒ α1 = α 2 ......... = α n = 0

When is the set S linearly

dependent ?

How to test if a finite set S

is linearly independent or

dependent ?

Take arbitrary linear combination of

vectors of a set S = { u1 ,..., u n } and equate

it to zero vector,

α1u1 + α 2u2 +,..., +α nu n = 0V (i)

S is linearly independent

If there exists a nontrivial

solution of equation (i)

i.e. at least one of α ’s is i

S = { u , u ,..., u

1 2 n

} is called LD.

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Corr : Any set S = { 0 , u , u ,..., u }

V 1 2 n

always LD. Consider α ≠ 0 0

α 0 + 0u +,...,+0u = 0

0 V 1 n V in this allscalars

α , 0, 0,…,0 are not zeros since

0

α ≠ 0.

0 Therefore S is LD.

Q.10 : Given that set { u, v, ω } is

Linearly Independent, check

whether { u + v, v + ω , ω + u} is LI.

α ( u + v ) + β ( v + ω ) + γ ( ω + u ) = 0V

(α + γ ) u + ( β + α ) v + ( γ + β )ω = 0V

Since { u, v, ω} is L.I.

α +γ = β +α = γ + β = 0

⇒α = β =γ = 0

Example : Determine

whether the Set

{

S = 1, x + x ,− x + x,3 x

2 2

}

of P vector space

of all polynomials of

is

LI or LD.Rajiv Kumar Math II

Take the linear combination of

the vectors of set S equal to oP

α (1) + β ( x + x ) + γ ( − x + x ) + δ (3x) = 0 P

2 2

On rearranging in

powers of x, we get,

α + ( β + γ + 3δ ) x + ( β − γ ) x =0 P 2

0+0x+0x = α + ( β + γ + 3δ ) x + ( β − γ ) x

2

2

powers of x we get equations

α=0, β+γ +3δ=0, β- γ =0

solutions , a possible solution is

α=0, δ=-2/3, β= γ =1

Hence S is linearly dependent.

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Example : Determine

whether the Set

{ }

S = x,1 + x, x − x + 1

2

of P vector space

2

of polynomials of

degree ≤ 2 is

LI or LD.

Take the linear combination of the

vectors of set S equal to 0V

(

α ( x ) + β (1 + x ) + γ x − x + 1 = 0

2

)

On rearranging in

powers of x, we get,

( β + γ ) + (α + β − γ ) x + ( γ ) x 2

=0 P 2

Basis and Dimension

Definition: Let V be a vector

space. A subset B of V is

called a basis of V, if

(i) B is Linearly Independent

(ii) [B] = V

Definition : If a vector space V

has

a basis consisting of a finite

number

of elements then space is said to

be

Definition : Number of elements in a

finite dimensional.

Basis of a finite dimensional vector

space V is called dimension of V.

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Thm:If set

S = { u1 , u2 ,..., um } of

a vector space V is LD, then every

superset

S = { u1 , u 2 ,..., u m , u m +1 ,....... u n }

of S is also L.D.

S= { u , u ,..., u } .As set S is LD

1 2 m

combination of elements of S

equal to 0V , i.e there exist αi not

all zero such that

α u + α u + ... + α u = 0 ---(i)

1 1 2 2 m m V

Now consider superset

S ′ = { u1 , u2 ,..., um , um +1 ,...un }

of S.

Now (i) ⇒

α 1u1 + α 2u2 + ... + α mum + 0um+ 1 + ... + 0un = 0V

Hence there exist a non

trivial linear combination

of elements of S' equal

to 0v i.e set S'

is linearly dependent.

Theorem: If a set S = { u , u ,..., u 1 2 n

} o

a vector space V is linearly

independent, then every subset of S is

is also linearly independent.

Theorem: Suppose

S = { u1 , u2 ,..., uk } is

an ordered set of a vector space V.

If u ≠ 0 , then set S is LD, iff one

1 V

1 k

1 m −1

Fact

If { u1, u2 ,..., um }

is Linearly independen

t

and u∈ [{ u1, u2 ,..., um } ], u ≠ ui

then { u1, u2 ,..., um , u}

is Lineardependent.

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Fact

If { u1, u2 ,..., um }

is Linearly independen t

and u∉ [{ u1, u2 ,..., um } ]

then { u1, u2 ,..., um , u}

is Linearindependen

t.

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Example : Determine

whether the Set

x x x

S= {xe ,(1+x) e ,(1-x) e },

of vector space ζ(0,∞)

LI or LD.

x x

αxe +β(1+x) e

x

+γ(1-x) e =0V

x

as e ≠ 0 for any x,

-x

multiply with e , we get

⇒ αx +β(1+x)

+γ(1-x) =0V

Rajiv Kumar Math II

⇒(β+γ) + (α+β-γ)x =0V

Solutions , for example

α= -2 β=1, γ=-1 is a solution

hence

Set is linearly dependent

Example : Determine

whether the Set

x x 3 x

S={xe ,(1+x) e ,(1-x ) e },

of vector space ζ(0,∞)

LI or LD.

x x

αxe +β(1+x) e

3 x

+γ(1-x ) e =0V

⇒ αx +β(1+x)

3

+γ(1-x ) =0V

x

as e ≠ 0 for any x

3

⇒(β+γ) + (α+β)x-γx =0V

⇒ γ=0

β + γ=0

α+ β =0

⇒ γ=0 =α= β

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Q. Find a basis for a

subspace U of V4 in the

following

3x1+x2-x3+x4 =

U={(x1,x2,x3,x4)∈V4 :

0

x1+3x2-x3 = 0

Essentially U is solution set of two

Homogenous equations .

Answer :

{(1/4,1/4,1,0),(-3/8,1/8,0,1)}

Fact

If { u1, u2 ,..., um }

is Linearly independen t

and u∈ [{ u1, u2 ,..., um } ]

then { u1, u2 ,..., um , u} , u ≠ ui

is Lineardependentand

[{ u1, u2 ,..., um } ] = [{ u1, u2 ,..., um , u} ]

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Corollary : A finite

S = { u1 , u2 ,..., uk }

subset

S=

of a vector space V

containing a nonzero

vector contains a linearly

independent subset A of

S such that [A]=[S].

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Q.2 page 104

Q. Is the subset S of V4 a basis of V4

,? If not find a basis of [S]

S={(1,-1,0,1), (0,0,0,1), (2,-

1,0,1),(3,2,1,0)}

Example

Q. Is the subset S of V4 a basis of V4

,? If not find a basis of [S]

S={(1,-1,0,1), (1,0,0,0), (2,-

={u 1, u 2 , u3 , u 4 }

1,0,1),(3,2,1,0)}

≠(0,0,0,0)

Linearly independent as u1

Rajiv Kumar Math II

{u1, u2 } is linearly

independent

As u2 ≠ αu1 for any α real

Now number

to check, if set

{ u1, u2 , u3 } is linearly independen

or dependent.

For that we need to

Check whether u3 is in span of

{ u , u } or not?

Rajiv Kumar Math II

(2,-1,0,1) =α (1,-1,0,1)+ β (1,0,0,0),

We get from inspection that α=1,β

=1

Hence u3 is in span of

{ u1, u2 } i.e. , set { u1, u2 ,

u3 }

Is linearly dependent.

But [{ u1, u2 } ]= [{ u1, u2 , u3 }]

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Now we check u4 is in span of

{ u1, u2 } or not?

For that

(3,2,1,0) =c (1,-1,0,1)+ d (1,0,0,0),

c+d=3 -c=2, 1=0c+0d &0=c+0d

Which would mean 0=1, which is

Not true , hence c&d does not exis

Rajiv Kumar Math II

i.e.u4 is not in span of

{ u1, u2 } i.e { u1, u2 , u4 } is

Linearly independent and

[S]= [{ u1, u2 , u4 }]

As u3 is in [{ u1, u2}] , hence

In [{ u1, u2 , u4 }] i.e.

A= { u1, u2 , u4 }

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Q. Find a basis for a

subspace U of V in the

following

U={p(x)∈P3 : p(1)=0

=p'(0) }

Answer :

{x2-1, x3-1}

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Q. Find a basis for a

subspace U of V in the

following

U={p(x)∈P4 : p"(1)

=p'(1) }

Definition of sum of two

sets

A +C = {u+w : u∈A, w∈C

? What is sum of x-axis and y- axis

In XY plane.

Thm : If U &W are two

subspaces of vector space V

then U+W =[U∪W]

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Q. 9 If U &W are two

distinct (n-1) dimensional

subspaces of an n

dimensional vector space

V ,n >1, then prove that

dim (U∩W)=n-2

As U & W are distinct

there exist an element u

in U such u is not in W

Let S’ = { u1, u2 ,…………. un-1 }

And S’’ ={ v1, v2 ,…………. vn-1 }

Be basis of U & W respectively

u∉ W = [S’’]

u∉ [S’’ ] and S’’ is

linearly independent

i.e. Set ={ v1, v2 ,…………. vn-

1,u}

has n elements hence it is

But U+W=

a basis of V [U∪W]

would imply that U+W=V

Rajiv Kumar Math II

dim (U+W)

=dim (U) + dim(W) -dim(U∩

W)

Would give the result.

Q. Find a basis for a

subspace U of V in the

following

U={p(x)∈P3 : p"(1) =p'(0) =0

p(x)∈U ⇒

}

2 3

q0 + q1x+ q2x + q3x =p(x)

&p"(1) =p'(0) =0

Rajiv Kumar Math II

2

p'(x)= q1+2q2x+ 3 q3x

p’’(x)= 2q2+ 6 q3x

Now p’(0)=0 ⇒q1=0

p’’(1)=0⇒2q2+ 6 q3=0

Hence

U={q0 + q1x+ q2x2+ q3x3: q1=0 & q2=

-3q3 }

U={q0-3q3x2+ q3x3: q1, q3 ∈R}

linearly independent, {1, -3x2 +x3}

is a basis of U.

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Q.4 page 104

Q. Determine the dimension of [S].

S={(1,-1,0,1), (0,0,0,1), (2,-

1,0,1),(3,2,1,0)}

? If we just want to find dim([S])

Can we do it in better manner

If elementary row operations are

performed on rows of a matrix A

Does the span of row vectors of

Matrix A change? It does not.

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Hence if we write vectors as rows of

the matrix and reduce the matrix

to row echelon form, then row

rank is nothing but dim[S].

Thm : If V has a basis of n

elements then every set of p

vectors with p>n is linearly

dependent.

Proof not included .

Definition: Let B = {u1 ,u2,…….. un,} be

Then a vector v ∈ V can be written as:

Rajiv Kumar Math II

It is denoted by [v]B. α 1, α 2,……., α n are

called the coordinates of vector v relative to

the ordered basis B.

The coordinates of a vector relative to the

standard basis are simply called the

coordinates of the vector. It should be clear

that [v]B is unique in view of following

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Theorem: In a vector space V

let B = {u1,u2,…….. ,un} span V.

Then the following two conditions are

equivalent:

(i) {u1 ,u2,…….. un,} is a linearly

independent set.

( ii) If v ∈ V, then the expression

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Example: Find the coordinates of

B={1,x+x2, x2-1} of P2

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Equating coefficients of powers of x we get

α-γ=0, β= 3, β+ γ=4

⇒ γ =1= α, β=3

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Thm : In an n-dimensional

vector space V any set of n

linearly independent vectors

is a basis.

Proof : If S = { u , u ,..., u

1 2 m

}

Is set of n linearly independent

Vectors, for proving S is a basis of

V we shall prove [S]=V

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Let u∈V & u∉S , we shall prove u∈

[S],

S ∪ {u} = { u , u ,..., u , u}

Now set

1 2 m

Is a set containing more than n

elements, hence as per theorem

Stated earlier set S∪{u} is LD

i.e there exist a nontrivial linear

Combination of elements of S∪{u}

Equal to 0V. Rajiv Kumar Math II

i.e there exist αi not all zero such

that

α1u1 +α2u2 + ... +αmum +αm +1u = 0V

---(i)

Because if αm+1=0, then

(i) ⇒ α1u1 + α2u2 + ... + α mum = 0V

And linear independence of set S

Would mean all αi 1 ≤i≤m are o

Rajiv Kumar Math II

Which contradicts the fact that

Was a nontrivial linear combination

Hence αm+1≠0 , i.e.

u=-(1/ αm+1) (α1u1 + α 2u2 + ... + α mum )

i.e. u∈[S]

Hence V is a subset of [S]

And we already have [S] is a subset

V hence [S]=V, i.e S is a basis of V

Rajiv Kumar Math II

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