You are on page 1of 64

Span of any set S

Definition : Span of set S is set of all


finite linear combinations of elements of
S.
Thm : [S] is a subspace of
V for any nonempty set S of
V.

Rajiv Kumar Math II


Trivial linear combination

If all scalars α1 , α 2 ,...,α n are zeros,


then linear combination
α u + α u +,...,+α u
1 1 2 2 n n

is called trivial linear combination.

Rajiv Kumar Math II


Nontrivial linear
combination
If at least one of αi’s is not zero,
thenα u1
+ α1
u + ,...,
2

2
u n n

is called non-trivial linear


combination

Rajiv Kumar Math II


Linearly Dependent and Independent
Set

Defn : A finite setS = { u , u ,..., u


1 2 n
}
Is said to linearly
independent if
α1u1 + α 2u2 +,...,+α nun = 0V
⇒ α1 = α 2 ......... = α n = 0
When is the set S linearly
dependent ?
How to test if a finite set S
is linearly independent or
dependent ?

Rajiv Kumar Math II


Take arbitrary linear combination of
vectors of a set S = { u1 ,..., u n } and equate
it to zero vector,
α1u1 + α 2u2 +,..., +α nu n = 0V (i)

now solve for α1 , α 2 ,..., α n

If We can prove all αi are 0, then


S is linearly independent
If there exists a nontrivial
solution of equation (i)
i.e. at least one of α ’s is i

not zero, then set


S = { u , u ,..., u
1 2 n
} is called LD.
Rajiv Kumar Math II
Corr : Any set S = { 0 , u , u ,..., u }
V 1 2 n

containing zero vector in it is


always LD. Consider α ≠ 0 0

α 0 + 0u +,...,+0u = 0
0 V 1 n V in this allscalars
α , 0, 0,…,0 are not zeros since
0

α ≠ 0.
0 Therefore S is LD.
Q.10 : Given that set { u, v, ω } is
Linearly Independent, check
whether { u + v, v + ω , ω + u} is LI.
α ( u + v ) + β ( v + ω ) + γ ( ω + u ) = 0V
(α + γ ) u + ( β + α ) v + ( γ + β )ω = 0V
Since { u, v, ω} is L.I.
α +γ = β +α = γ + β = 0
⇒α = β =γ = 0
Example : Determine
whether the Set
{
S = 1, x + x ,− x + x,3 x
2 2
}
of P vector space
of all polynomials of
is
LI or LD.Rajiv Kumar Math II
Take the linear combination of
the vectors of set S equal to oP
α (1) + β ( x + x ) + γ ( − x + x ) + δ (3x) = 0 P
2 2

On rearranging in
powers of x, we get,
α + ( β + γ + 3δ ) x + ( β − γ ) x =0 P 2

Rajiv Kumar Math II


0+0x+0x = α + ( β + γ + 3δ ) x + ( β − γ ) x
2
2

comparing coefficient of like


powers of x we get equations
α=0, β+γ +3δ=0, β- γ =0

Which has infinitely many


solutions , a possible solution is
α=0, δ=-2/3, β= γ =1
Hence S is linearly dependent.
Rajiv Kumar Math II
Example : Determine
whether the Set
{ }
S = x,1 + x, x − x + 1
2

of P vector space
2

of polynomials of
degree ≤ 2 is
LI or LD.
Take the linear combination of the
vectors of set S equal to 0V
(
α ( x ) + β (1 + x ) + γ x − x + 1 = 0
2
)
On rearranging in
powers of x, we get,
( β + γ ) + (α + β − γ ) x + ( γ ) x 2
=0 P 2
Basis and Dimension
Definition: Let V be a vector
space. A subset B of V is
called a basis of V, if
(i) B is Linearly Independent
(ii) [B] = V
Definition : If a vector space V
has
a basis consisting of a finite
number
of elements then space is said to
be
Definition : Number of elements in a
finite dimensional.
Basis of a finite dimensional vector
space V is called dimension of V.
Rajiv Kumar Math II
Thm:If set

S = { u1 , u2 ,..., um } of
a vector space V is LD, then every
superset
S = { u1 , u 2 ,..., u m , u m +1 ,....... u n }
of S is also L.D.
S= { u , u ,..., u } .As set S is LD
1 2 m

there exist a nontrivial linear


combination of elements of S
equal to 0V , i.e there exist αi not
all zero such that
α u + α u + ... + α u = 0 ---(i)
1 1 2 2 m m V
Now consider superset
S ′ = { u1 , u2 ,..., um , um +1 ,...un }

of S.
Now (i) ⇒
α 1u1 + α 2u2 + ... + α mum + 0um+ 1 + ... + 0un = 0V
Hence there exist a non
trivial linear combination
of elements of S' equal
to 0v i.e set S'
is linearly dependent.
Theorem: If a set S = { u , u ,..., u 1 2 n
} o
a vector space V is linearly
independent, then every subset of S is
is also linearly independent.

Rajiv Kumar Math II


Theorem: Suppose
S = { u1 , u2 ,..., uk } is
an ordered set of a vector space V.
If u ≠ 0 , then set S is LD, iff one
1 V

of the vectors um of { u ,..., u }


1 k

belongs to the span of { u ,..., u }


1 m −1
Fact

If { u1, u2 ,..., um }
is Linearly independen
t
and u∈ [{ u1, u2 ,..., um } ], u ≠ ui
then { u1, u2 ,..., um , u}
is Lineardependent.
Rajiv Kumar Math II
Fact
If { u1, u2 ,..., um }
is Linearly independen t
and u∉ [{ u1, u2 ,..., um } ]
then { u1, u2 ,..., um , u}
is Linearindependen
t.
Rajiv Kumar Math II
Example : Determine
whether the Set
x x x
S= {xe ,(1+x) e ,(1-x) e },
of vector space ζ(0,∞)
LI or LD.

Rajiv Kumar Math II


x x
αxe +β(1+x) e
x
+γ(1-x) e =0V
x
as e ≠ 0 for any x,
-x
multiply with e , we get
⇒ αx +β(1+x)
+γ(1-x) =0V
Rajiv Kumar Math II
⇒(β+γ) + (α+β-γ)x =0V

Then there exist infinitely many


Solutions , for example
α= -2 β=1, γ=-1 is a solution
hence
Set is linearly dependent

Rajiv Kumar Math II


Example : Determine
whether the Set
x x 3 x
S={xe ,(1+x) e ,(1-x ) e },
of vector space ζ(0,∞)
LI or LD.

Rajiv Kumar Math II


x x
αxe +β(1+x) e
3 x
+γ(1-x ) e =0V
⇒ αx +β(1+x)
3
+γ(1-x ) =0V
x
as e ≠ 0 for any x

Rajiv Kumar Math II


3
⇒(β+γ) + (α+β)x-γx =0V

⇒ γ=0
β + γ=0
α+ β =0

⇒ γ=0 =α= β

Hence set is linearly independent.


Rajiv Kumar Math II
Q. Find a basis for a
subspace U of V4 in the
following
3x1+x2-x3+x4 =
U={(x1,x2,x3,x4)∈V4 :
0
x1+3x2-x3 = 0
Essentially U is solution set of two
Homogenous equations .

Rajiv Kumar Math II


Answer :
{(1/4,1/4,1,0),(-3/8,1/8,0,1)}

Rajiv Kumar Math II


Fact
If { u1, u2 ,..., um }
is Linearly independen t
and u∈ [{ u1, u2 ,..., um } ]
then { u1, u2 ,..., um , u} , u ≠ ui
is Lineardependentand
[{ u1, u2 ,..., um } ] = [{ u1, u2 ,..., um , u} ]
Rajiv Kumar Math II
Corollary : A finite
S = { u1 , u2 ,..., uk }
subset
S=
of a vector space V
containing a nonzero
vector contains a linearly
independent subset A of
S such that [A]=[S].
Rajiv Kumar Math II
Q.2 page 104
Q. Is the subset S of V4 a basis of V4
,? If not find a basis of [S]
S={(1,-1,0,1), (0,0,0,1), (2,-
1,0,1),(3,2,1,0)}

Rajiv Kumar Math II


Example
Q. Is the subset S of V4 a basis of V4
,? If not find a basis of [S]
S={(1,-1,0,1), (1,0,0,0), (2,-
={u 1, u 2 , u3 , u 4 }
1,0,1),(3,2,1,0)}

Solution : set {u1} is


≠(0,0,0,0)
Linearly independent as u1
Rajiv Kumar Math II
{u1, u2 } is linearly
independent
As u2 ≠ αu1 for any α real
Now number
to check, if set
{ u1, u2 , u3 } is linearly independen
or dependent.
For that we need to
Check whether u3 is in span of
{ u , u } or not?
Rajiv Kumar Math II
(2,-1,0,1) =α (1,-1,0,1)+ β (1,0,0,0),
We get from inspection that α=1,β
=1
Hence u3 is in span of
{ u1, u2 } i.e. , set { u1, u2 ,
u3 }
Is linearly dependent.
But [{ u1, u2 } ]= [{ u1, u2 , u3 }]
Rajiv Kumar Math II
Now we check u4 is in span of
{ u1, u2 } or not?
For that
(3,2,1,0) =c (1,-1,0,1)+ d (1,0,0,0),

And we have equations


c+d=3 -c=2, 1=0c+0d &0=c+0d
Which would mean 0=1, which is
Not true , hence c&d does not exis
Rajiv Kumar Math II
i.e.u4 is not in span of
{ u1, u2 } i.e { u1, u2 , u4 } is
Linearly independent and
[S]= [{ u1, u2 , u4 }]
As u3 is in [{ u1, u2}] , hence
In [{ u1, u2 , u4 }] i.e.
A= { u1, u2 , u4 }
Rajiv Kumar Math II
Q. Find a basis for a
subspace U of V in the
following
U={p(x)∈P3 : p(1)=0
=p'(0) }

Answer :
{x2-1, x3-1}
Rajiv Kumar Math II
Q. Find a basis for a
subspace U of V in the
following
U={p(x)∈P4 : p"(1)
=p'(1) }

Rajiv Kumar Math II


Definition of sum of two
sets
A +C = {u+w : u∈A, w∈C
? What is sum of x-axis and y- axis
In XY plane.
Thm : If U &W are two
subspaces of vector space V
then U+W =[U∪W]
Rajiv Kumar Math II
Q. 9 If U &W are two
distinct (n-1) dimensional
subspaces of an n
dimensional vector space
V ,n >1, then prove that
dim (U∩W)=n-2

Rajiv Kumar Math II


As U & W are distinct
there exist an element u
in U such u is not in W

Now U & W are n-dimensional


Let S’ = { u1, u2 ,…………. un-1 }
And S’’ ={ v1, v2 ,…………. vn-1 }
Be basis of U & W respectively

Rajiv Kumar Math II


u∉ W = [S’’]
u∉ [S’’ ] and S’’ is
linearly independent
i.e. Set ={ v1, v2 ,…………. vn-
1,u}

is linearly independent and


has n elements hence it is
But U+W=
a basis of V [U∪W]
would imply that U+W=V
Rajiv Kumar Math II
dim (U+W)
=dim (U) + dim(W) -dim(U∩
W)
Would give the result.

Rajiv Kumar Math II


Q. Find a basis for a
subspace U of V in the
following
U={p(x)∈P3 : p"(1) =p'(0) =0
p(x)∈U ⇒
}
2 3
q0 + q1x+ q2x + q3x =p(x)
&p"(1) =p'(0) =0
Rajiv Kumar Math II
2
p'(x)= q1+2q2x+ 3 q3x
p’’(x)= 2q2+ 6 q3x
Now p’(0)=0 ⇒q1=0
p’’(1)=0⇒2q2+ 6 q3=0
Hence
U={q0 + q1x+ q2x2+ q3x3: q1=0 & q2=
-3q3 }

Rajiv Kumar Math II


U={q0-3q3x2+ q3x3: q1, q3 ∈R}

U={q0+q3 ( -3x2 +x3): q1, q3 ∈R}

U=[{1, -3x2 +x3} ]

Now as set {1, -3x2 +x3} is


linearly independent, {1, -3x2 +x3}
is a basis of U.
Rajiv Kumar Math II
Q.4 page 104
Q. Determine the dimension of [S].
S={(1,-1,0,1), (0,0,0,1), (2,-
1,0,1),(3,2,1,0)}
? If we just want to find dim([S])
Can we do it in better manner
If elementary row operations are
performed on rows of a matrix A
Does the span of row vectors of
Matrix A change? It does not.
Rajiv Kumar Math II
Hence if we write vectors as rows of
the matrix and reduce the matrix
to row echelon form, then row
rank is nothing but dim[S].

Rajiv Kumar Math II


Thm : If V has a basis of n
elements then every set of p
vectors with p>n is linearly
dependent.
Proof not included .

Rajiv Kumar Math II


Definition: Let B = {u1 ,u2,…….. un,} be

an ordered basis for V.


Then a vector v ∈ V can be written as:

v = α 1u1+ α 2u2 +…….+ α nun.

The vector (α 1, α 2,……., α n) is called

the coordinate vector of v relative to the


Rajiv Kumar Math II
It is denoted by [v]B. α 1, α 2,……., α n are
called the coordinates of vector v relative to
the ordered basis B.
The coordinates of a vector relative to the
standard basis are simply called the
coordinates of the vector. It should be clear
that [v]B is unique in view of following
Rajiv Kumar Math II
Theorem: In a vector space V
let B = {u1,u2,…….. ,un} span V.
Then the following two conditions are
equivalent:
(i) {u1 ,u2,…….. un,} is a linearly
independent set.
( ii) If v ∈ V, then the expression
Rajiv Kumar Math II
Example: Find the coordinates of

3x+4x2 with respect to the ordered basis

B={1,x+x2, x2-1} of P2

Let α+β(x+x2)+γ(x2-1) = 3x+4x2

(α-γ)+βx+(β+ γ)x2= 3x +4x2


Rajiv Kumar Math II
Equating coefficients of powers of x we get

α-γ=0, β= 3, β+ γ=4

⇒ γ =1= α, β=3

(α,β,γ) = (1,3,1) are coordinates of the

polynomial 3x+4x2 with respect to the given

basis., i.e. [3x+4x2]B= (1,3,1)


Rajiv Kumar Math II
Thm : In an n-dimensional
vector space V any set of n
linearly independent vectors
is a basis.
Proof : If S = { u , u ,..., u
1 2 m
}
Is set of n linearly independent
Vectors, for proving S is a basis of
V we shall prove [S]=V
Rajiv Kumar Math II
Let u∈V & u∉S , we shall prove u∈
[S],

S ∪ {u} = { u , u ,..., u , u}
Now set
1 2 m
Is a set containing more than n
elements, hence as per theorem
Stated earlier set S∪{u} is LD
i.e there exist a nontrivial linear
Combination of elements of S∪{u}
Equal to 0V. Rajiv Kumar Math II
i.e there exist αi not all zero such
that
α1u1 +α2u2 + ... +αmum +αm +1u = 0V
---(i)

Now first we prove αm+1≠0


Because if αm+1=0, then
(i) ⇒ α1u1 + α2u2 + ... + α mum = 0V
And linear independence of set S
Would mean all αi 1 ≤i≤m are o
Rajiv Kumar Math II
Which contradicts the fact that

α1u1 + α 2u2 + ... + α mum + α m +1u = 0V


Was a nontrivial linear combination
Hence αm+1≠0 , i.e.
u=-(1/ αm+1) (α1u1 + α 2u2 + ... + α mum )
i.e. u∈[S]
Hence V is a subset of [S]
And we already have [S] is a subset
V hence [S]=V, i.e S is a basis of V
Rajiv Kumar Math II