Stepper Motors.pptx | Electric Motor | Magnetic Devices

A stepper motor is a “pulse-driven” motor that changes the angular position of the rotor in “steps” It is a digital electromechanical device Define
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β = the step angle (per input pulse) Resolution = the number of steps/revolution θ = total angle traveled by the rotor
 = β X No of steps

n = the shaft speed = (β X fp) / 360°
 fp = No of pulses/second

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1. Input to SM is in the form of electric pulses whereas input to CM is a constant voltage source. 2. A CM has a free running shaft , SM moves through angular steps. 3. No feedback required when SM used. 4. SM is a digital electromechanical device, CM is an analog electromechanical device.

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•Stepper motors are operated open loop, while most DC motors are operated closed loop. •Stepper motors are easily controlled with microprocessors, however logic and drive electronics are more complex. •Stepper motors are brushless and brushes contribute several problems, e.g., wear, sparks, electrical transients. •DC motors have a continuous displacement and can be accurately positioned, whereas stepper motor motion is incremental and its resolution is limited to the step size. •Stepper motors can slip if overloaded and the error can go undetected. (A few stepper motors use closed-loop control.) •Feedback control with DC motors gives a much faster response time compared to stepper motors.

The motors response to digital input pulses provides open-loop control. . 7. A wide range of rotational speeds can be realized as the speed is proportional to the frequency of the input pulses. Very reliable since there are no contact brushes in the motor. 5. making the motor simpler and less costly to control. Therefore the life of the motor is simply dependant on the life of the bearing. The rotation angle of the motor is proportional to the input pulse. It is possible to achieve very low speed synchronous rotation with a load that is directly coupled to the shaft. 6. 8. Precise positioning and repeatability of movement since good stepper motors have an accuracy of 3 – 5% of a step and this error is non cumulative from one step to the next. Excellent response to starting/ stopping/reversing. The motor has full torque at standstill (if the windings are energized) 3. 4.1. 2.

High level of vibration due to stepwise motion. Open loop control means no feedback information about position is needed. 4. 2. . Low torque capacity compared to dc motor. Your position is known simply by keeping track of the input step pulses. Open Loop Operation One of the most significant advantages of a stepper motor is its ability to be accurately controlled in an open loop system.1. This type of control eliminates the need for expensive sensing and feedback devices such as optical encoders. Resonances can occur if not properly controlled. Not easy to operate at extremely high speeds. 3.

Variable Reluctance   -Does not have permanent magnet -Low torque -Employ permanent magnet -Low speed. Hybrid   . 1. Permanent Magnet    3. relatively high torque -Multi-toothed stator poles and a permanent magnet rotor -High static and dynamic torque Aliasgar Kutiyanawala 6  2.

This motor does not exhibit magnetic resistance to turning when the motor is not powered. the VR stepper motor does not have a permanent-magnet and creates rotation entirely with electromagnetic forces. . the motor exhibits some magnetic resistance to turning.Permanent-magnet (PM) stepper motor — This kind of motor creates rotation by using the forces between a permanent magnet and an electromagnet created by electrical current. Variable-reluctance (VR) stepper motor — Unlike the PM stepper motor. An interesting characteristic of this motor is that even when it is not powered.

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     Step angle = 3600 / S = 300 S=mNr (3x4) =12 m= number of phases (3) Nr=number of rotor teeth (4) .

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• • • • • • • • Permanent Magnet / Variable Reluctance Unipolar vs. Bipolar Number of Stacks Number of Phases Degrees Per Step Microstepping Pull-In/Pull-Out Torque Detent Torque .

Toothed Rotor and Toothed Stator   Principle of Operation: Reluctance of the magnetic circuit formed by the rotor and stator teeth varies with the angular position of the rotor Here. energize coils A and A’ (Phase A)   Rotor “steps” to align rotor teeth 1 and 4 with stator teeth 1 and 5 .

Energize coils B and B’ (Phase B) Rotor steps “forward” Rotor teeth 3 and 6 align with Stator teeth 1 and 5 Let Ns = No of teeth on the stator Nr = No of teeth on the rotor β = Step Angle in space degrees  Ns  Nr Ns  Nr  360 .

Energize Phase C Rotor steps forward another 15° .

Energize Phase D Rotor steps forward another 15° .

Repeat the sequence Energize Phase A Rotor steps forward again .

and 1 to change rotation to the opposite (counter-clockwise) direction . 3. 3. and 4 to turn the rotor “clockwise” Close switches in reverse order .Switching Circuit for the stepper motor Close switches in order 1.4. 2. 2.

The following are the most common drive modes. • Wave Drive (1 phase on) • Full Step Drive (2 phases on) • Half Step Drive (1 & 2 phases on) •Microstepping (Continuously varying motor currents) .

(d) 2-. (b) 2+ . PM wave drive sequence (a) 1+ . (c) 1. .“One phase on” stepping sequence for two phase motor..

Two phase on stepping sequence for two phase motor. .

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.One & Two phase on” stepping sequence for two phase motor.

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.8.6 degree.Hybrid stepper motor A Hybrid stepper motor in which the rotor has an axial permanent magnet at the middle and ferromagnetic teeth at the outer section as shown in fig. 1. 3.9. 0. A Hybrid stepper motor combines the characteristics of both PMSM and VRSM. HM have a small step angle.

4/6-pole Hybrid stepper motor .Operation of Hybrid stepper motor 2-ph.

Higher holding torque capability. 2. 3. Less tendency to resonate. . High stepping rate capability. 4.     1. 5. Provides détente torque with windings deenergized. Better damping due to presence of rotor magnet.

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4. Describe the constructional features and working of a single-stack 3-phase.Describe the constructional features and working of Hybrid stepper motor. Comparison of VR. . 5.      1. What is Stepper Motor? Describe the operating principle of Stepper Motor. Describe the 2-phase. 3. 8/4-pole permanent magnet stepping motor. 2. 6. 6/4-pole variable reluctance stepping motor. PM and Hybrid stepper motor. Explain the multistack variable reluctance Stepper Motor.

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