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• It is an approach to organizing manufacturing which can be applied to any industry where a small batch variety production is used. • It is a basic & simple concept of : identification & bringing together related or similar parts & processed, to take advantage of the similarities which exists, during all stages of design & manufacture. • It is based on the fact that : small lots of different parts can be produced more economically, if they are grouped & scheduled for production according to the common characteristics. Definition : 1. It is an approach to the organization of work in which organizational units are relatively independent groups, each responsible for production of a given family of products. 2. A group is a combination of a set of workers & a set of machines & or other facilities in one reserved area, designed to complete a specified set of products. 3. A family is the set of products produced by a group. ( 405 MT / kackar)
G Facilities 405-6 MT / Kackar Group Layout . • It is preferred when all the components made on the line use the same workstations in the same sequence.E Gr I A. Gr III C. • When line layout cannot be used.Group Lay out. • New method of facility layout called GT is based on product specialisation in which group of machines chosen for each family are situated together in a group layout in such a way that parts flow from one machine to the next in sequence of operation. • With the line lay out.H Gr II B. It is not necessary for every part to visit each machine but machines in a group or cell should ideally be capable of carrying out all operations required in the family.r. machines & workstations are used to process the parts in batches & the facilities are arranged w.t functions.F Gr IV D. machines or workstations are arranged in a line in their sequence of operation.
P. A common output target for the group: This is essential if full advantage is to be taken of the use of planned sequence of loading to reduce set-up times & throughput times & to increase machine capacity.Desirable characteristics of Group 1. ( 406 MT / Kackar) 2 3 4 5 6 . Workers should not be allowed to move or transferred out of the group. The parts should not move out of the group for operations on machines belonging to other groups. W. The number of workers in the group should be small. This helps to reduce throughput time. inventory. Group should have its own special products to be completed. & handling time.I. There should be group of workers special to the group: Workers associated with a specific group make a good team & they learn to understand the special problems associated with machines & equipments & with the family of components which they make. Special allocated area to house machines & equipment: This is an essential characteristics if full benefit of GT is to be obtained. There should be group of machines & equipments special to each group: The group should be supplied with machines that are needed to process all the components in their families.
3. 2. Groups of facilities.i. The parts of each of the items produced are examined & placed into logical classes or families & the operation sequence for each class of parts is determined & specified. Reduced set-up time hence increase in productive capacity.Benefits of Groups 1. 5. Decrease in w.p inventory. 4. suitable for processing of these classes of parts are specified using the operation planning details of forecasted demand for the items & hence components. Reduction of throughput time as all operations on a part are done inside the group. The sequencing of each class of parts for each group of facilities. Improvement in quality levels. Completion of work as per due date or schedule. (406 MT / Kackar) Stages in group technology manufacture: 2 3 . 1.
Usually they are related by size.A family is the collection of parts which are similar for purpose of manufacture. shape & required similar manufacturing operations. geometry. 1 Coding & classification system: 4-systems are commonly used for classification. Continued .The key factor in using GT successfully is the ability to identify readily items within the same family.Stages in group technology manufacture: contd. i) British system ii) Mitrofanov system iii) Optive system iv) Vuoso system 2 Production flow analysis: . . a) Formation of part families: .next slide .Major groups are formed using factory flow analysis on the basis similar operation route sequence.This technique was derived by Burbidge (1975) to enable groups of parts to be defined in terms of the operations that they will require for their manufacture. .
b) Group analysis : This is concerned with the (i) division of plant assigned to each department.Formation of part families: contd. on to groups & (ii) division of parts into associated families. • Production flow analysis has 3. c) Line analysis: This is concerned with the flow of materials between machines inside the groups & planning the best layout for the machines.next slide .stages: a) Factory flow analysis: This is concerned with the (i)1st major division into large groups of department size & (ii) into very large families of parts to be made in to these departments. 3-secondary aims are adopted. (i) As far as possible. (ii) each machine type should exist in each group only & (iii) incompatible processes should be in different groups. Continued . The primary aim is to achieve the simplest possible material flow system inside each department & to help to achieve this. each part should be processed in one group only. The aim is to find the sequence of machines which will give the nearest approximation to line flow.
ii) Prepare a similarity co-efficient matrix: This is based on the extent to which the parts share common characteristics.Formation of part families: contd. This approach provides the way to study similarities between a divers population of objects in a quantitative manner. iii) Perform a cluster analysis : The similarity between each pair of objects is examined & group of objects are formed such that within each group the objects are similar to each other according to set of rules. . This involves 3-stages: i) Preparation of part operation matrix: This indicates if the features are either present or absent. 3 Cluster analysis: Clustering is the science of classification of objects based upon their possession or lack of defined characteristics.
It is the one which contains all of the features of all the members of the family. 4-aspects of the group likely to result from the family should be examined: i) What load will the family generate? ii) What capacities & capabilities would be needed? iii) Is it possible to set up the group for the family? iv) Are the necessary machines available or to be obtained? c) Composite Components: Once the family has been identified . b) Choice of family: Composition of family parts which are “ housed” in a group is largely determined by the equipments available within the organization. The available machines are then surveyed to find which group can be best put together to produce the family. a composite component may be conceptualized.Stages in group technology manufacture: contd. . ( refer figure in next slide—408 / MT).
“Singleton” outlined a simple method for determining a layout sequence foe a number of operations or machines through which a variety of parts is processed. Such charts show the nature of the inter-operation movements for all parts for a given period of time. e) Sequencing : Determination of sequence in which the batches of parts are loaded on to the GT cell or “Line” will be influenced by the desire to minimise the set-up time/cost& minimise throughput time . each part having a particular route through the operation.Stages in group technology manufacture: contd. d) Facilities sequencing: The facilities necessary to perform all operations on the part family & the expected load on each equipment can be listed for each family identified. Travel or cross charts are some times used in developing layouts.
Improved labour efficiency resulting from standardization & simplification. Reduction in throughput time. 6. 3. Simplification of material flow system. (408 MT / kackar) 1. 5. Simplifies production control & material handling.Stages in group technology manufacture: contd. . New procedures in production planning & control are needed if the advantage of the GT are to be realized fully. 2. Reduced work-in-process Simplification in planning procedures. 7. 4. Considerable preparatory effort is required including training of staff to get acceptance of the accepted change over. g) Benefits of GT: Reduced unit set-up time & increased capacity. • • • f ) Introducing group technology: Introduction of GT may affect wide areas of the organization depending on the extent to which it is applied.
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