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Boiler feed water treatment = the process by which suspended and dissolved solids are removed Clean condensate and demineralized makeup water are de-aerated in order to supply boiler feed water (BFW) to multiple BFW pumps 2 or 3 pumps are used in the boiler operation Primary pump has 1 or 2 backup pumps that placed in standby mode Common boiler water problems:
Foaming Deposit tube failure Corrosion



1. High concentrations of dissolved solids in boiler water cause foaming of the water within the boiler 2. Foaming produces carryover of impurities in the steam & cause deposits on the turbine wheels

1. A complex electrochemical reaction attack a large or a small pinpoint area 2. Associated with the reaction of oxygen with metal & also contribute by pH, chemical compounds & others 3. Occur when BFW has excess acidity/alkalinity, high level of O2 and CO2, high temp / high level of ammonia /sulfur-bearing gases 4. Prevention: maintaining pH levels in boiler feed water, removing dissolved O2 from water, use chemical treatment, & following established out-ofservice & blow-down procedures

1. High temp cause impurities precipitate & adhere to the hot metal surfaces of the boiler, forming scale (layer) 2. Dissolved bicarbonate of calcium & magnesium break down & form insoluble carbonates cause deposit tube failure 3. Carbonate D, phosphate D, sulfate deposit & etc


Takes place before raw water enters the boiler

Complements the external process and helps protect the internal components of the boiler system

Primary location water treatment is at boiler Common tests on boiler feed water include pH and the presence of particulate matter (measured in ppm), iron, oil and silica

De-aerator device used to remove air from water
Located at the end of the condensate return header & used as primary boiler feed source

In BFW treatment Designed to remove Dissolved Oxygen by heating the water with steam cause Dissolved O2 leads to boiler corrosion 2 types :
Spray de-aerator :- inject steam directly into the water Tray de-aerator :- steam enters at the bottom & water enters at the top. Water drops over a series of sieve trays (provide good contact between liquid & heated vapor

Term used to describe the process in which water is removed from the boiler system As suspended solids concentrate in the water, chemical treatment reaches a point at which it is no longer effective. So removal of a portion of the treated water is necessary. Is depends upon the amount of suspended solid the boiler can handle (5-10% of total capacity) Blow-down is controlled through an instrument designed to measure the electric conductivity of the water Blow-down ports are - located on the bottom of the boiler so accumulated sludge can be removed

Physical Properties Of Water
In purest form is colorless, odorless, and tasteless The only organic substance occurs in 3 states at atm temp range: ice (solid), steam (gas), water (liquid) Boils at 212F (100C) at atm pressure Increase Pressure boiling point rise It takes 1 British thermal unit (Btu) to raise the temp of 1 pound (lb) of water one degree Fahrenheit (F). It takes 970 Btu to change 1 pound of water to steam This heat energy (latent heat of vaporization) is stored in the steam & when it condenses, the energy is given off Thus much of the heat from burning fuel can be absorbed by boiler water, transported with the steam, & released at the points of use E.g: 1 lb of boiler feed water at 72F requires 140 Btu to reach 212F & additional 970 Btu to change to steam. A total of 1,110 Btu is stored in the steam


Steam generators / boilers used to produce steam Boilers use a combination of radiant, conductive and convective heat transfer methods to change water to steam Steam is used to operate:
steam turbines, distillation systems, and reaction systems provide cooling or heating to process equipment

Consists of :
heat source water-containing drum water inlet steam outlet

Operations :
As heat is added to the drum, the temp increases until the water boils As the steam rises, it is captured in a line & sent on for further processing

Factors that effect boiler operations:

density difference for internal circulation Pressure temperature water level


More complicated boiler (modified shell and tube heat exchanger) Heat is transferred to the fluid medium Composed of a shell and a series of tubes designed to transfer heat from the fire tubes (waste gases pass through) & into boiler feed water Combustion gases exit through a chamber similar to an exchanger head & pass out of the boiler The water level in the boiler shell is maintained above the tubes to protect them from over heating Heat is transferred from within the tube to the surrounding fluid Components: boiler shell with feed inlet & outlet connections, fire tubes, a combustion tube, burner, feed water inlet, steam outlet, combustion gas exhaust port and tube sheets


Consists an upper & lower drum connected by tubes Lower drum & water tube filled completely with water, the upper drum only partially full This arrangement allows steam to pass through mechanical separators in the upper drum, flow to a superheater section and exit the boiler As heat is applied to the boiler firebox, water flows from the upper drum through downcomers into the lower drum Tubes, called risers, cause water and steam to flow into the upper drum because of density differences

Boiler Water Circulation

Operates under the principal of differential density When a fluid is heated, it expands and becomes less dense Cooler water flows from the upper drum through the downcomers to the lower drum and then rises as some steam is generated Circulation continues and make up water is added to the upper drum to replace the steam that is generated Circulation continues because steam bubbles in lower drum move up the riser tubes & cause the density of the water to decrease The cooler water in the downcomer flow into mud drum Steam move up the riser & steam generating tube & into the upper steam generating drum

Steam and water drum circulation


Economisizer section

Main Components of Boiler


Gas and oil burners


Purge the furnace

Check furnace for percentage of flammables

Light the burners

Start the fan

Bring the boiler up to pressure

Fill the steam drum with water to the normal level

Boiler start up procedures

Place the boiler online

Steam System
As steam flows from the boiler to the plant, it begins to cool & formed condensate Condensate cause problems as it flows with the steam Slugs of water can damage equipment and lead to a condition known as water hammer Device known as steam traps are used to remove condensate. Steam traps are grouped into 2 categories: Mechanical Thermostatic. Mechanical steam traps include : inverted buckets floats Thermostatic traps include bellows-type traps

Inverted Bucket Steam Traps

Use to remove condensate from steam and return it to a condensate header The position of the bucket determines whether the valve is open or shut An air vent & outlet valve is located on the top of the bucket & Gases escape through this hole and into the outlet line Bucket in the lower position valve is open Bucket in the upper position the valve is closed
Operation: the steam enters the bottom of the trap via the inlet and fills the inverted bucket Condensate in the steam drops to the bottom of the inverted bucket, and gases escape out the vent When the body of the bucket trap is full of condensate, the inverted bucket rests on the bottom & the outlet valve on the top in the open position As steam fills the inverted bucket, it rises and valve closes

Float Steam Traps

Float-type traps have a float that rests on the top of the condensate A rod to the outlet valve attaches the float. The position of the float determines the position of the valve As the level in the trap increases, the float lifts, allowing condensate to flow Components:
A body, An inlet & outlet A bonnet A float A rod A valve

Bellows Thermostatic Steam Traps

One of the popular steam traps is the thermostatic steam trap because it cheaper and selected more frequently than other type This type of trap responds to the temperature differences between condensate and steam Operation:
steam enters the bottom of the trap and comes into contact with the bellows Condensate causes the bellows to contract and open. Steam causes the bellows to expand and close

Bellows trap can handle condensate & noncondensable gases