CONTENT  Introduction  Vitamin A  Vitamin D  Vitamin E  Vitamin K  Conclusion .

.INTRODUCTION  derived from "vitamine  first discovered by Kazimierz funk  means vital for life  Vitamins are micronutrients  Vitamins are essential  no perfect food that contains all the vitamins  Vitamins are non-energy producing  classified according to how soluble they are in fat or water.

TWO CLASSES OF VITAMINS 13 Vitamins in human Water Soluble (9) • Vitamin C • B Vitamins Fat Soluble(4) • Vitamin A • Vitamin D • Vitamin E • Vitamin K .

Vitamin comparison .

Vitamin A  3 forms in the body  retinol  retinal  retinoic acid  Precursor form Beta carotene .

.INTERCONVERSION  Beta carotene spilt into retinol in the intestine while retinol and retinal are interconvert but retinoic acid cannot be converted back into retinol.

fortified cereals. apricots. darkly colored orange or green vegetables ).SOURCE AND FUNCTION Good sources of vitamin A are milk. papayas. and mangos. peaches. and orange fruits such as cantaloupe. . liver. eggs.


FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN A VISION:  retina contain two different photoreceptor system rods and cons.  Rods are responsible for vision in dim light and contain rhodopsin  The role of vitamin A in the vision cycle is specifically related to the retinal form .


o KERITINIZATION o REPRODUCTIVE DISORDER .oNight Blindness retina does not receive enough retinal to regenerate the visual pigments bleached by light oBlindness (Xerophthalmia) Lack of vitamin A in cornea. major cause of childhood blindness in the world.


flesh of oily fish. and liver (milk is poor source of vitamin D). .Vitamin D exists in two formed D2 and D3  SOURCE OF VITAMIN D:  This vitamin is unique your body manufactures it when you get sunlight on your skin. triggers synthesis  Source of vitamin D fish-liver oil. egg yolk. Approximately 90% of Vitamin D requirement obtained from sun  UV light from sun hits skin.


Vitamin D Deficiency  Vitamin D deficiency cause following diseases  Rickets  Bone deformation  Osteomalacia  Loss of calcium in bone .

Alpha- tocopherol is the most active form while other forms have very limited bioactivity Vitamin E as an antioxidant Oxidation and reduction Antisterility .Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant Exist in four forms alpha. beta. gamma and delta.

SOURCE OF VITAMIN E  Polyunsaturated plant oils  Margarine  Salad dressing   Leafy green vegetables  Wheat germ  Whole grains  Egg yolks Nuts and seeds .

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN E  Antioxidant  stabilization of cell membranes  regulation of oxidation reactions Vitamin E Deficiency  cause Haemolytic Anaemia  Cause sterility in some animals  Muscle dystrophy  Neurological disorder  Myocardial degeneration .

synthetically created  K1 produced by plants we eat  K2 produced by bacteria in intestine .VITAMIN K term for ketamine Named “K” for German word for “clot”  Naturally found in primarily two forms   K1 and K2 K3 simpler form.

SOURCE OF VITAMIN K      Bacterial synthesis in intestine Leafy green vegetables Cruciferous vegetables Liver Milk  Vitamin K1 produced by plants and algae  Broccoli. kale. plant oils like canola and soybean  Vitamin K2 produced by bacteria in gut . chard.

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN K  Synthesis of blood-clotting proteins  Synthesis of bone proteins  Maintain blood vessel elasticity  It acts as co enzyme .

Vitamin K Deficiency Deficiency of vitamin K causes delayed blood coagulation  Appearance of blood in urine or stool  Signs of vitamin K deficiency include weakening of bones. osteoporosis hardening of heart valves .

K. They are non energy producing but have very vital role in body. Vitamin E as antitoxins and Vitamin K in blood clotting. Vitamin D in bone health .fat soluble vitamins are found in fats including Vitamin A. D.  “SO VITAMINS ARE VITAL KEYS TO HEALTH” .CONCLUSION  Vitamins are essential micronutrients organic in nature. Major role of Vitamin A is in vision . E.

gov/factsheets/VitaminE-HealthProfessional/ .authorstream.wikipedia.nih.html http://www.html www.

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