Naming System

• Naming mechanism
– To assign character names to be assigned to these objects

• Locating mechanism
– For mapping the object’s name to the object’s location in the distributed system

• Functions
– – – – – Location transparency Migration transparency Replication of objects Object sharing Multiple names for objects

Features of a Good Naming Systems
• Location Transparency • Location Independency
– Name of the object need not be changed on Location change

• Scalability
– Any changes in the system scale should not require any change in naming mechanisms

• Uniform naming convention
– File names, process names, user names

• Meaningful names

• Allow multiple user-defined names for same object • Group Naming • Performance • Fault Tolerance • Replication transparency .

• Locating nearest replica • Locating all replicas .

Basic Concepts . a logical object that binds to a physical object from among a set of physical objects eg: test. #asd .Name Name :.

• Human oriented names – Also known as high-level names – A set of characters that is meaningful to users – Should have flexibility to give multiple names to same object – Should be location independent .

• System oriented names • Also known as unique identifiers or low-level names • Are bit patterns of fixed size which can be automatically generated for each object when the object is created Mapping of Human oriented names to System oriented names .

Namespace and contexts Namespace :The set of names within a distributed system complying with the naming convention Name space Flat name space • Names are character strings • No structure Partitioned name space • Name structure represents physical association .

Internet Domain Namespace. for fixed-level namespace – Grapevine system. Universal Directory Service • Hierarchical namespace is an example of compound names • The names defined in this namespace are called hierarchical names . Each of the partitions is called a domain of the name space • Names can be – Simple names – Compound names Eg: sample.• Partitioned name space is partitioned to different levels.doc Eg: /usr/temp/xdev • Number of levels can be fixed or variable • Eg. Xerox clearinghouse(a distributed directory service).

Hierarchical namespace .

each domain is a context in which those names are valid .Context • A context is an environment within which a name is valid • A context/name pair forms a qualified name that identifies an object uniquely • In a partitioned name space.

Basic features of a context • Names in a context can be generated regardless of what names exist in other contexts • The same name can occur in more than one context • Contexts can be nested where a qualified name consists of identifying a context and subsequent sub-contexts within it • Eg: /usr/temp/alias/ .

Ways Of Naming Objects .

each object having precisely one.Distinguished names While every name is unambiguous. Because the naming data base is arranged as a tree. The distinguished name of an object. is a sequence of RDNs (realtive distinguished names) of the object's entry and all of its superiors. there is a unique path from the root to the object's entry . starting from the root. distinguished names (DNs) are also unique.

an alias name involves one or more alias entries .Alias/ abbreviations Like a distinguished name (DN). alias is a path through the IT from the root to the object's entry. unlike the DN. However.

• A relative name defines a path from the current context to the specified object. giving the context names on the path. It is called a relative name because it is "relative to” (start from) the user's current context. .• An absolute name begins at the root context of the name space tree and follows a path down to the specified object.

Accessing namespace using current context .

Object naming in Hierarchical namespace • The user can specify the name of an object in any one of the following ways:– Using absolute name – Using a relative name – Changing the current context and then using a relative name .

A name is mapped to all the objects to which it is bound. Useful for broadcasting and multicasting . multicast name :.a name is mapped to any one of the set of objects to which it is bound. This type of facility is useful in situations such as when a user wants a request to be serviced by any of the servers capable of servicing that request and the user is not concerned with which server services his or her request.Generic names/ Group or multicast names generic name :.

Descriptive/ Attribute based names • Allows an object to be named with a set of attributes • An attribute has a type and a value • Eg for attributes – User : sunita – Date created:20/12/2012 – Language : C .

Source routing name • A namespace may be of the same structure as the physical network • Such namespaces define Source routing names to identify a path through the network in a distributed system • Route is specified at the source computer .

It acts to bind an object's name to some of its properties. . including the object's location. The name servers that store the information about an object are called the authoritative name servers of that object. Each name server normally has information about only a small subset of the set of objects in the distributed system.Name server A name server is a process that maintains information about named objects and provides facilities that enable users to access that information.

Name server The authoritative name server of the root domain knows the locations of the authoritative name servers of the domains that branch out from the root domain .

Name Agent Interface between the name servers and clients • Private name agent – A private name agent works for a single client and is structured as a set of subroutines linked to a client program. • Shared name agent – A shared name agent is structured as a part of the operating system kernel with system calls to invoke the naming service operations or which can be accessed via IPC primitives. .

such as its location.Name resolution • Name resolution is the process of mapping an object's name to the object's properties. • Client contacts the name agent. • Name agent contacts the known name server to locate the object • If object is not located then this known name server contacts the other name servers .

. operations can be invoked to read or update the object's properties.• Since an object's properties are stored and maintained by the authoritative name servers of that object. • Once an authoritative name server of the object has been located. • Each name agent in a distributed system knows about at least one name server apriori. name resolution is basically the process of mapping an object's name to the authoritative name servers of that object.

Name resolution in a partitioned namespace .

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