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GROUP 11 S.Ramya Johan Ninan Christian kulas S.Vairavan Pooja Juneja G.


Training methods Overview

Off- Site Training - Lectures/Seminars - Multimedia Presentations - Programmed Instruction - Computer Assisted Instruction - Simulation - Role Playing - Behavior Modeling On-site training - On-the-Job Training - Apprentice Training - Coaching/mentoring - Job Rotation

On Job Training

Off the Job Methods


One person (the trainer) does all of the talking. He or she may use handouts, visual aids, question/answer, or posters to support the lecture.

Communication is primarily one-way.

Pros: Less time is needed for the trainer to prepare. It provides a lot of information quickly when it is less important that the trainees retain a lot of details. Cons: Does not actively involve trainees in training process. The trainees forget much information if it is presented only orally.

Demonstration is very effective for basic skills training.
The trainer shows trainees how to do something. The trainer may provide an opportunity for trainees to perform the task being demonstrated. Pros: This method emphasizes the trainee involvement. It engages several senses: seeing, hearing, feeling, touching. Cons: It requires a great deal of trainer preparation and planning. There also needs to be an adequate space for the training to take place. If the trainer is not skilled in the task being taught, poor work habits can be learned by the trainee.

The conference training method is a good problem solving approach. A group considers a specific problem or issue and they work to reach agreement on statements or solutions. Pros: There is a lot of trainee participation. The trainees build consensus and the trainer can use several methods (lecture, panel, seminar) to keep sessions interesting. Cons: It can be difficult to control a group. Opinions generated at the conference may differ from the managers ideas, causing conflict.

A panel provides several points of view on a topic to seek alternatives to a situation. Panel members may have differing views but they must also have objective concerns for the purpose of the training. Pros: Trainees often find it interesting to hear different points of view. The process invites employees to share their opinions and they are challenged to consider alternatives. Cons: It requires a great deal of preparation. The results of the method can be difficult to evaluate.

Case Studies
Real problems faced by the managers is given to the trainee. Trainee studies the cases to determine problems, analyses causes, develop alternative solutions, select the best one, and implement it. Pros: A case study can present a real-life situation which lets trainees consider what they would do. It can present a wide variety of skills in which applying knowledge is important. Cons: Cases can be difficult to write and time consuming to discuss. The trainer must be creative and very skilled at leading discussions, making points, and keeping trainees on track.

Role Playing
Focuses on emotional (mainly human relations) issues rather than actual ones. The essence of role playing is to create a realistic situation, as in case study, and then have the trainee assume the parts of specific personalities in the situation. Pros: Learning in a classroom situation. The consequences are a better understanding among individuals. Role playing helps promote interpersonal relation. Attitude change is another result of role playing Cons: A lot of time is spent making a single point. Trainers must be skilled and creative in helping the class learn from the situation.

Programmed Instruction
Information is provided to trainee through books or teaching machines. Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner. Allowing the person to respond. Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers. If the answers are correct, the learner proceeds to the next block.

Pros: No intervention of the trainer.

Cons: The scope for learning is less

Computer Assisted Instruction

Tests are taken on the computer so the management can monitor each trainee's progress and needs. CAI training programme can be modified easily to reflect technological innovations in the equipment for which the employee is being trained. Trainees can usually use the computer almost any time they want, and thus get training when they prefer. Pros: No intervention of the trainer. Cons: High cost

Activities of an organization may be simulated and the trainee may be asked to make a decision in support to those activities.

The results of those decisions are reported back to the trainee with an explanation of what would have happened had they actually made in the workplace. The trainee learns from this feedback and improves his/her subsequent simulation and workplace decisions
Pros: Training becomes more reality-based, as trainees are actively involved in the learning process. Cons: Simulations are time-consuming. The trainer must be very skilled and make sure that trainees practice the skills correctly.

Projects require the trainees to do something on the job.

It might involve participation on a team, the creation of a database, or the forming of a new process.
Pros: This is a good training activity for experienced employees. Projects can be chosen which help solve problems or otherwise improve the operation. Trainees get first-hand experience in the topic of the training. Cons: Without proper introduction to the project and its purpose, trainees may think they are doing somebody elses work.


Trainees discover the competencies on their own using such techniques as guided exercises, books, and research.
Trainees able to choose the learning style that works the best for them They are able to move at their own pace and have a great deal of ownership over their learning.

Trainees can easily get side-tracked and may move slower than the trainer desires. It is also more difficult to measure the employees progress.

Movies/videos/computer based training

Content for the training experience comes primarily from a videotape or computer-based program.
It is easy to provide this training and the trainer can follow-up with questions and discussion. It is also easy to assure that the same information is presented to each trainee.

It is expensive to develop. Most trainers choosing this option must purchase the training from an outside vendor, making the content less specific to their needs.

On-the-job training
The trainee is placed on the job and the manager/mentor shows the trainee how to do the job. The training should be done according to a structured program that uses task lists, job breakdowns, and performance standards as a lesson plan. Pros:
Training can be made specific to the employee's needs. It is highly practical and reality based. Helps establish important relationships with mentor.

Training is not standardized for employees. Chances of learning by doing the job, providing no real training.

Mentors help employees solve problems through training them in skills modeling effective attitudes and behaviors. This system is sometimes known as a buddy system.

It can take place before, during, or after a shift. Individual attention and immediate feedback. Gives information regarding the business culture and organizational structure.

Training can be interrupted if the mentor moves on. The trainee can pick up bad habits, if mentor not trained.

Individual training methods

Trainer must decide method which suits the Trainees Environment Investments available
Many trainers will choose to combine methods or vary them. Others will select a single method that works best for them and never vary. With so many options, a trainer is limited only by his or her creativity.


The Induction Training Model

OUT OF INDUCTION Learn by doing Simulation/ Projects within a few units will give better understanding A new recruit should be aware of all units in the company Take him through each business unit

Create opportunity for detailed learning and clearing doubts

Follow up onthe-job with one more sitthrough training Allow fresh inputs to come into job execution

Encourage suggestions, Queries and changes to flow in

Put the recruits on the job for hands on understanding

The Experimental learning Model

Plan applications. Applying becomes an experience. The cycle begins again


Participants share reactions with each other


Participants get involved in an activity, acting and behaving as directed




Participants derive individual principles from their experiences

Facilitator explores, processes and evaluates the groups experience

The Cross cultural training technique

PRE-DEPARTURE ORIENTATION Sense of self and space Food and eating habits Verbal and non verbal communication Relationship Values and norms Beliefs and attitudes Work motivation and practices Mental processes and learning

Familiarization trip Training in new country Training on return Motivation Analysis of organization and communication

Awareness Valuing differences Realization

Cross cultural competence Knowledge Understanding Organizational and individual adaptations and changes

Attitude Skills Positive interaction for all individuals

Equity of customer service


Evaluating Training and Results

Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Training Evaluation

Level 1 Evaluation - Reactions

Measures how participants in a training program react to it.
Did they like it? Was the material relevant to their work? Smile sheet evaluation This level of evaluation provides improvement for the training. Also the participants reactions have important consequences for learning.

Level 2 Evaluation - Learning

To assess the amount of learning that has occurred due to a training program, level two evaluations often use tests conducted before training (pre test) and after training (post test).

Level 3 Evaluation - Transfer

This level measures the transfer that has occurred in learners' behaviour due to the training program.
Evaluating at this level attempts to answer the question - Are the newly acquired skills, knowledge, or attitude being used in the everyday environment of the learner?

Level 4 Evaluation- Results

This level measures the success of the program in terms that managers and executives can understand -increased production, improved quality, decreased costs, reduced frequency of accidents, increased sales, and even higher profits or return on investment.

Why Evaluation of Training?

Training cost can be significant in any business. Most organizations are prepared to incur these cost because they expect that their business to benefit from employees development and progress . There are four parties involved in evaluating the result of any training. Trainer, Trainee, Training and Development department and Line Manager. The Trainee wants to confirm that the course has met personal expectations and satisfied any learning objectives set by the T & D department at the beginning of the Programme.

Why Evaluation of Training?

The Trainer concern is to ensure that the training that has been provided is effective or not.
Training and Development want to know whether the course has made the best use of the resources available. The Line manager will be seeking reassurance that the time hat trainee has spent in attending training results in to value and how deficiency in knowledge and skill redressed.

What to Evaluate
Donald Kirkpatrick developed four level models to assess training effectiveness. According to him, evaluation always begins with level first and should move through other levels in sequence. Reaction Level Learning Level Behaviour Level Result Level There are three possible opportunities to undertake an evaluation:

1. Pre Training Evaluation 2. Context and Input Evaluation improvement and adjustments needed to attain the training objectives. 3. Post Training Evaluation

CASE STUDY 1- Department of Defense(DoD), USA

Team knowledge, skills, and attitudes

Teamwork is distinct from task work (i.e., operational skills), but both are required for teams to be effective in complex environments Teamwork depends upon each team member being able to

anticipate the needs of others adjust to each other's actions and to the changing environment shared understanding of how a procedure should happen in order to identify when errors occur and how to correct for these errors.

Initial DoD Efforts

MedTeams (Army) Focusing on teamwork competencies

Medical Team for Management (Air force) Concentrating on a cultural change

Skills that define Team performance in Health Care

Need for decision-making based on incomplete or conflicting information Demand for coordination among professionals with varied skills and ranks Possibility of poor team performance leading to serious consequences or death.

Team training
Team training can be defined as a method for applying a set of instructional strategies to specific teamwork skills. Team training is the marriage of two important concepts:
team competencies the instructional strategies for teaching those competencies.

Crew Resource Management

Crew Resource Management is defined as a family of instructional strategies that seek to improve teamwork in the cockpit by applying welltested training tools (e.g., simulators, lecture, videos) targeted at specific teamwork behaviors Most widely recognized team-training program designed to improve the margin of safety in aviation The behavioral skills that Crew Resource Management training addresses include: adaptability/flexibility, assertiveness, communication, decision making, leadership, mission analysis, and situational awareness. Proponents of adopting Crew Resource Management training in health care point to the fact that it has been successful in reducing errors in aviation, a high-risk industry, just like the health care industry

Medteam consists of a core team as a group of 3 to 10 medical employees who work interdependently during a shift and who had been trained to use specific teamwork behaviors to coordinate their clinical interactions. A core team includes at least one physician and one nurse A separate coordinating team manages several core teams, assigns new patients to the core teams, and provides additional resources as necessary To ensure that team members can easily recognize one another, they wear visible armbands, badges, or colored scrubs that identify them as members of a particular core team

Course Course
Classroom instruction(8 hrs) Introduction module Five learning modules, An integration unit Four-hour practicum (practicing teamwork behaviors and receiving feedback from a trained instructor) Coaching, mentoring, and review sessions are also provided during regular work shifts

MedicalTeam team Management management Medical

The Air Force developed and implemented Medical Team Management training because of the differences in the Air Force culture and in the structure of Air Force MTFs Medical Team Management was to reduce medical errors, in this case by teaching human-factors concepts to interdisciplinary teams of medical professionals The secondary purpose was to change the military's traditional medical culture to one that emphasizes open communication as opposed to individual performance.

MedicalTeam team Management management Program Program Medical

A three-day train-the-trainer course MTF course Potential trainers were required to have least 5 years of clinical experience in their specialty areas and at least 1 year of time remaining in the armed forces

Medical Team Management curriculum Management Curriculum

Introduction to the program overviews of key patient safety Crew Resource Management issues Specific modules for seven foundational elements

Management Curriculum
The program focused on teaching communication skills and back-up behaviors In particular, the emphasis was to teach participants how to use their skills to improve team processes like coordination. The content centered on topics included long-term planning, conducting briefings, and continuously monitoring operations Additional sustaining methods included periodic scripted safety drills; periodic team leader meetings; formal recognition of effective teamwork; and a report on implementation progress to the Air Force Patient Safety office

Lessons learned learned from from initial initial efforts efforts Lessons
Develop one standardized program Develop a scientifically-rooted and evidence-based program Incorporate what we know from the science of learning: engage trainees with interactive learning Focus on sustaining the team behaviors on the job Conduct evaluation at all levels of the Kirkpatrick Hierarchy

TEAMSTEPPS focuses on the core principles of teamwork identified by researchers by teaching specific tools and strategies that can be used to improve teamwork performance in the military medical environment.

CourseDescription description Course

Introductory module about the structure of the course, the history of team training, and the structure of teams This is followed by four modules centered on each of the four skills in this order: 1) Leadership 2) Situation Monitoring 3) Mutual Support 4) Communication with practical exercises for interactive


Core TEAMSTEPPS Core skills Skillsof for the course

The Delivery System The delivery system

Implementation is a three-phase process a pre-training assessment for site readiness, Training implementation for on-site trainers Training implementation and maintenance for in-service personnel.

TEAMSTEPPS program steps.


Current Steps Current status

To date, the overall reaction to the content has been favorable Staff members have remarked that the specific teamwork behaviors and skills being taught are pertinent, useful and applicable to their setting. Also noted is the fact that many feel tools and strategies such as DESC for conflict resolution can be immediately applied in day-to-day situations.

NextSteps steps Next

results-based evaluation of team training effectiveness of strategies for sustainment differential impact of TEAMSTEPPS effective strategies for dissemination


Study - Infosys Case StudyCase - Infosys

Training Technical training by Education & Research department: An entry-level technical training program Duration : 14 weeks. Quality Process Training: Has a strong focus on quality processes and methodologies. This training is tailored to the role that one is playing ie. Software Engineer, Programmer Analyst, Project Managers etc

Study - Infosys Case StudyCase - Infosys

Training Personal Effectiveness and Managerial Programs: To enhance the managerial capabilities and leadership abilities To enable better customer satisfaction, achieve organizational vision and create high performing multicultural teams. ILI: The Infosys Leadership System: The Infosys Leadership System (ILS) and the Infosys Leadership Institute (ILI) address the issue of sustained growth in general Creates a formal and committed system for developing leadership capabilities in Infoscions.

Case Case Study Study - Infosys

Infosys Leadership Institute (ILI) The leadership journey commences with the selection of high potential employees of the organisation. The top management of Infosys identifies a pool of candidates based on their past performance and an assessment of leadership potential The formal duration of the leadership journey is three years. These identified individuals are classified as high potentials.

Case Study - Infosys

Leadership competencies-Leadership competencies exist in the context of the organisations vision and its core values. In Infosys: Work People Technology Business Each of these is further amplified into smaller operational elements. These competencies were identified through a process of debate and discussion with an initial competency set developed through benchmarking studies of formal leadership development systems across the world.

The nine pillar model of leadership development

This model was developed after careful research of the processes followed by 18 of the most successful global companies. Each pillar has its own unique importance to the development of leadership competencies at the individual level An individual may choose one or more of these pillars for his or her own development. However, participation is must for the 360-degree feedback

Case Study - Infosys

Development assignments High potential employees are given experience in diverse functions through internal job rotations and cross functional assignments. DAs enable employees to gather practical leadership skills outside his or her zone of experience. Infosys Culture (IC) workshops These workshops help participants understand the core values, purpose and processes followed in the context of leadership development.

Case Study - Infosys

Development relationships one-on-one relationships in work settings The Infosys leadership development model views mentoring as a developmental relationship in the context of leadership development Leadership skills training This is a process by which employees of the organisation go through a series of learning interventions on topics of relevance to leadership Feedback intensive programmes These are intensive behavioural interventions, which are based on formal and informal feedback received from individuals that the employee interfaces with.

Case Study - Infosys

Systemic process learning This is an intervention that enables participants to view an organisation as a whole system comprising innumerable interacting sub-systems. It yields plans for continuous improvement in systemic processes and details how an individual will initiate such improvements. Action learning This is a team-based real-time experience used to solve real, systemic and unresolved organisational problems. It is a pragmatic process aimed at yielding a resolution to the problem or issue that has been identified, and a workable plan for setting goals for continued development, with strategies for attaining them.

Case Study - Infosys

Community empathy ILI creates opportunities for high-potential candidates to enrol themselves in causes outside. The importance of community empathy in overall leadership development is in line with the fundamental belief of the organisation that social conscience needs to be nurtured and enhanced in each one of its present and potential leaders.