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Some Models Prof. Sunil Sharma Faculty of Management Studies, University of Delhi,DELHI-110007.

Definition of Quality
ASQ Definition It refers to totality of features and characteristics of a

product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. Groocock combines ASQ and EOQC definition with that of Juran(Fitness for Use) and Crossby (Conformance to requirements)The degree of conformance of all the relevant features and characteristics of the product to all of the aspects of a customers need,limited by the price and delivery she would accept

Evolution of TQM
QC refers to operational techniques and activities

aimed both at monitoring a process and eliminating causes of unsatisfactory performance of relevant stage of quality loop in order to result in economic effectiveness. SQC refers to use of statistical distributions to measure the chance and degree of conformance of RM, processes and products to previously agreed specs.

TQC refers to a management framework to ensure

continuing excellence. It is referred to as CWQC in Japan.The emphasis is on total control of quality organisation wide (across all levels and all functions)and looks at the process of serving customers (internal and external).It is in fact,statistical control of quality applied to the total operations of an organisation including all steps of planning,design.production,service,marketing,finance and even administration.

QA is nothing but TQC conducted in a systematic manner.

QA contains all those planned and systematic actions required to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality QA builds-in quality through a set of documentation or a system at all stages. TQM then refers to Company-wide quality assurance from supplier to customer (external and internal) using documented systems approach and control of process variability in a team spirit with top management commitment. In a way, in a way, it is strategic quality management.

Jurans ten steps to quality improvement are: (i) Build awareness of opportunities to improve, (ii) Set goals for improvement, (iii) Organise to reach goals, (iv) Provide training, (v) Carry out projects to solve problems, (vi) Report progress, (vii) Give recognition, (viii) Communicate results, (ix) Keep score, and (x) Maintain momentum by making annual improvement, part of the regular systems and processes of the company.

Quality trilogy

Quality planning----Quality control---Quality improvement Similarly, three dimensions of Quality by GitlowQuality of design, Quality of conformance; and Quality of performance.

Crosby (1984)
Crosby proposed four absolutes of quality. (i) Quality is defined as conformance to requirements, not goodness. (ii) The system for achieving quality is prevention, not appraisal. (iii) The performance standard is zero-defects, not thats close enough. (iv) The measurement of quality is the price of non-conformance, not indexes.

Demings 14 points(1982)

Deming, the world quality guru, proposed the following fourteen points as a foundation of TQM. The points are applicable to services, as well. (i) Create consistency of purpose with a plan. (ii) Adopt the new philosophy of quality (as means of survival and global competitiveness). (iii) Cease dependence on mass inspection. (iv) End practice of choosing suppliers based on price, rather focus on need for a long-term relationship. (v) Identify problems and work, continuously, to improve the system, i.e. study the process itself, not the defects detected, during inspection for quality improvement. (vi) Adopt modern methods of training on job.

Demings 14 points contd.

(vii) Change the focus from production numbers (quantity) to quality. (viii) Drive out fear (from employees). (ix) Break down barriers between departments through open communication. (x) Stop requesting improved productivity from workers without providing such methods (management systems) to achieve it. (xi) Eliminate work-standards that prescribe numerical quotas at the expense of quality. (xii) Remove barriers to pride of workmanship. (xiii) Institute vigorous education and training not only in specific jobs but also in tools and techniques of QC. (xiv) Create a structure in top management that will emphasise the preceding thirteen points, every day, by transformation in management-style and nurturing a quality-culture.

Feigenbaum (1988)
Feigenbaum of General Systems Company Inc. gave 7 characteristics of managing TQ (i) Total Quality is not a technical function or department but a systematic process that extends throughout the company. (ii) Total Quality must be organised to recognise that while it is everybodys job in the company, it will become nobodys job unless quality process in the company is correctly structured to support both the quality work of individuals and the quality teamwork among departments. (iii) Total Quality improvement must take place in marketing, development and engineering, in manufacturing and, particularly, in services, not merely in production for factory workers only.

Feigenbaum contd.

(iv) Total Quality must be perceived to be what the buyer wants and needs to satisfy his requirements not what the company needs to satisfy its requirements for marketing and production-efficiency. (v) Total Quality improvement requires applications of new technology, ranging from quality design techniques to computer-aided quality management, measurement and control. (vi) Total Quality improvement is achieved only through the help and participation from all the men and women in the workforce not from just a few specialists. (vii) For Total Quality attainment, the company has to establish a clear, customer-oriented, quality management system throughout the organisation which people can understand, believe in and want to be part of.

Some common points

Despite some differences among these quality Gurus namely Crosby, Deming and Feigenbaum, a number of common points arise: (i) Inspection is never the answer to quality improvement. Prevention rather than correction is always the strategy. (ii) Involvement of and leadership by top management are essential to the development of quality-culture. (iii) A programme for quality requires organisation-wide efforts across all departments and all levels, aided by long-term commitment and necessary investment in education and training in tools and techniques by management. (iv) Quality always comes first and other factors are secondary.

Quality leadership
- The concept of quality leadership has got the following characteristics It recognises as Dr Joseph Juran has argued that, at least, 8085% of failures in any organisation are the fault of systems controlled by the management. Only fewer than 1520% of the problems are actually worker-related. In quality leadership, the focus is, thus, on constantly and rigorously improving every system, not on blaming people. It asserts that work can be studied, analysed, scientifically dissected and improved (work simplification). Processes must be standardised and standardised procedures must be followed until a better way is developed. Variations must be reduced in output. Opportunity must be provided for everyone to contribute in improving the processes and eliminating problems. Then, everyone must follow the new method until it can be further improved (Methods Engineering).

Quality leadership (Joiner ,1988)

It has a customer focus, an obsession with quality, as defined by the customer. It recognises that there are both external customers and internal customers, some employees depending on the work of others to be able to perform their jobs properly. It demands improved relations with suppliers, a true working partnership which, in most cases, will require a single or limited reliable supplier(s) for each item. It emphasises on process improvements rather than individual accountability. Communication systems are to be adopted to the needs and flow of the work, not to the needs and structure of the hierarchy. There should be constancy of purpose throughout the organisation in an environment which nurtures total commitment from all employees.

-conformance to reqmts. -- Sr Mgt responsible for quality

and dependability --Sr mgt is responsible for 94% of quality problems. Reduce variability by continuous

-Predictable degree of uniformity

Performance std. is ZD General approach Prevention

not inspection -Rejects statistically acceptable levels of quality - Improvement basis is a process,not a program improvement goal -Quality improvement teams -Cost of non-conformance-Quality is free. -Reqmts for supplier, vendor rating,Most faults due to purchasers themselves.

improvement. Statistical methods of QC must be used. Continuous improvement to reduce variation. Employee participation in decision making No .Optimum cost of impvt. Inspection too late, allows defects to enter system,Statistical evidence reqd.Vendor rating notremd;critical of most systems.

Quality described as Fitness for use.
Less than 20% of quality problems are due to workers. Avoid compaigns to do perfect work. General management approach to quality-especially human elements. Recommends SPC but warns,it can lead to too driven an approach. Project-by-project team approach; set goals. Team and quality circle approach. Quality is not free; there is an optimum. Purchasing problems complex. Carry out formal surveys. Recommends vendor rating systems. Single source of supply not recommended as it doesnt offer

competition vs. Deming who supports single source of supply.


A plan to keep improving all operations continuously A system for measuring these improvements accurately A strategic plan based on benchmarks that compare the companys performance with the worlds best A close partnership with suppliers and customers that feeds improvements back into operations A deep understanding of the customers so that their wants can be translated into products A long-lasting relationship with customers, going beyond the delivery of the product to include sales, service, and ease of maintenance A focus on preventing mistakes rather than merely correcting them A commitment to improving quality that runs from the top of the organization to the bottom

Building Blocks Model (Zairi,1991)

Quality Planning Leadership Vision For World Class Competitiveness TQ : The Pillars

TQ : The Pillars Continuous Improvement Value Management at Each Stage Employee Involvement TQ : The Foundation

Work Place Design Layout, Safety, Methods Designing

SPC, SQC, ISO 9000 Systems

Management Control System OPT/MRP II/JIT

Process Flexibility FMS/AMT/CIM/CAD/CAM

User - Supplier Chain

Oakland Model (2000)


Co mm

Cu ltu re


un n tio ica

ustomer C Supplier





Maximum score Percent age of subtotal 15%


Leadership 150 1. Leadership of top-ranking managers 50 2. Policy 30 3. Management control system and quality improvement process 30 4. Allocation and utilization of resources 20 5. Responsibility to society 10 6. Unique and creative leadership technique 10

MBNQA Contd.
2.Information and analysis 75 1. Utilization of analysis technique or system 15 2. utilization of information about product quality and servicing quality 10 3. Customer data and analysis 20 4. Analysis of quality and data of subcontractor 10 5. Analysis of quality and data of distributor or sales agent 10 6. Employee-related data and analysis 5 7. Unique and innovative analysis of information 5

3.Quality of strategy planning 7.5% 75 1. Operation target and strategy target 20 2. Function of planning 20 3. Quality improvement plan 30 4. Unique and innovative planning for strategy 5 4. Utilization of human resources 15% 150 1. Control and operation 30 2. Quality-consciousness and participation of employees 50 3. Training and education concerning quality 30 4. Personnel assessment, motivation, award system 30 5. Unique and innovative strategy concerning utilization of human resource 10

MBNQA Contd.
5. Quality

assurance of product and servicing


150 1. Reflection of customers opinion on product and servicing 20 2. Development of new product and new servicing 20 3. Design of new product and new servicing 30 4. measurement, standardization, data system 10 5. Engineering 10 6. Audit 15 7. Recording 10 8. Safety, health and sanitation, environment 10 9. Assurance/effectiveness 15 10. Unique and innovative approach to quality assurance of product and servicing 10

MBNQA Contd.
6. Result of quality assurance of product and servicing 100 1. Reliability and achievement of product and servicing 25 2. Reduction of scrap, rework, rejection concerning product and servicing 20 3. Reduction of complaint and claim suit concerning quality 25 4. Reduction of assurance- or site-related assistance operation 20 5. Innovative index and economic gain for quality improvement 10 10%

MBNQA Contd.
7. Customer satisfaction 300 1. Quality of product and servicing from customers viewpoint 100 2. Comparison of competitiveness of product and servicing 50 3. Customer servicing and countermeasure for complaint 75 4. Assurance from customers viewpoint 50 5. Unique (or innovative) technique to grasp customer satisfaction 25
Total 1000 30%


1. Policy 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 2. 1. Organizati on and its 2. Managem ent 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Policies pursued for management quality, and quality control Method of establishing policies Justifiability and consistency of policies Utilization of statistical methods Transmission and diffusion of policies Review of policies and the results achieved Relationship between policies and longand short-term planning Explicitness of the scopes of authority and responsibility Appropriateness of delegations of authority Interdivisional cooperation Committees and their activities Utilization of staff Utilization of activities Quality control diagnosis


3. Education and Dissemination 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Education programs and results Quality- and control-consciousness, degrees of understanding of quality control Teaching of statistical concepts and methods, and the extent of their dissemination Grasp of the effectiveness of quality control Education of related company (particularly those in the same group, sub-contractors, consigness, and distributers) QC circle activities System of suggesting ways of improvements and its actual conditions Collection of external information Transmission of information between divisions Speed of information transmission (use of computers) 4. Data processing statistical analysis of information and utilization of the results

6. 7. 4. Collection, Dissemination and Use of Information of Quality 1. 2. 3. 4.

Deming Prize contd.

5. Analysis 1. 2. Selection of key problems and themes Propriety of the analytical approach Utilization of statistical methods Linkage with proper technology Quality analysis, process analysis Utilization of analytical results Assertiveness of improvement suggestions


4. 5.


Deming Prize contd.

6. 1. Standard 2. ization 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Systematization of standards Method of establishing, revising, and abolishing standards Outcome of the establishment, revision, or abolition of standards Contents of the standards Utilization of statistical methods Accumulation of technology Utilization of standards

7. Control

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Systems for the control of quality and such related matters as cost and quantity Control items and control points Utilization of such statistical control methods as control charts and other statistical concepts Contribution to performance of QC circle activities Actual conditions of control activities State of maters under control

Deming Prize contd.

8. Quality Assuran ce 1. Procedure for the development of new products and services (analysis and upgrading of quality, checking of design, reliability, and other properties) 2. Safety and immunity from product liability 3. Customer satisfaction 4. Process design, process analysis, and process control and improvement 5. Process capability 6. Instrumentation, gauging, testing, and inspecting 7. Equipment maintenance, and control of subcontracting, purchasing, and services 8. Quality assurance system and its audit 9. Utilization of statistical methods 10. Evaluation and audit of quality 11. Actual state of quality assurance

Deming Prize contd.

9. Results 1.

3. 4. 10. Planning for the Future 1.

2. 3. 4.

Measurements of results Substantive results in quality, services, delivery time, cost, profits, safety, environments, etc. Intangible results Measures for overcoming defects Grasp of the present state of affairs and the concreteness of the plan Measures for overcoming defects Plans for further advances Linkage with the long-term plans

Baldrige 1. Leadership 2. Information and analysis 3. StategicQualityPlanning 4.HRD&management Deming

1. Policy 2.Organisation and management 3.Education and training 4.Collection, dissemination and use of information on quality 5. Management of process quality 5.Analysis 6. Quality and operations results 6.Standardisation 7. Customer focus and satisfaction 7.Control 8 Quality Assurance 9. Results 10. Planning for future

EFQM Model
People Management
Source: EFQM The European quality award assessment model

People Satisfaction
Business Results


Policy and Strategy


Customer Satisfaction


Impact on Society