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Jane W. Ball Ruth C. Bindler
Child Health Nursing
Nursing Care of the Hospitalized Child
Child Health Nursing: Partnering with Children & Families By Jane W. Ball and Ruth C. Bindler © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Children’s Understanding of Health and Illness
• Developmental Considerations
• Separation (highest age risk) • Stranger Anxiety (6-18 mos)
– Refer to Table 17-3: Stages of Separation Anxiety
Children’s Understanding of Health and Illness
• Developmental Considerations
• Separation anxiety • Loss of self-control
Children’s Understanding of Health and Illness • Developmental Considerations – Preschooler • Regression (highest age risk) • Separation anxiety and fear of abandonment • Inability to distinguish fact/ fiction • Unable to understand reason for hospitalization .
Children’s Understanding of Health and Illness • Developmental Aspects – School age • Loss of control/ privacy – Adolescent • Aware of the physiologic. psychologic and behavioral causes of illness • Concerned with appearance • Separation from peer group .
Stressors of Hospitalization for Children at Various Developmental Stages • Refer to Table 17-2 .
Children’s Understanding of Health And Illness • Psychological Aspects – Infant • Issues with attachment – Toddler • Disruption of routine/ separation from parents – Preschooler • Loss of self-control • Fear of dark • Injury .
Children’s Understanding of Health and Illness • Psychological Aspects – School-aged children • Pain • Bodily Injury • Death – Adolescents • Loss of control/ privacy • Fear of altered body image .
The Effects of Hospitalization on the Child and Family • Children’s understanding of health and illness is primarily based on their cognitive ability at their developmental level • Previous experiences with healthcare professionals .
community or family support) • Siblings – Fears – Behavioral Disruption .The Effects of Hospitalizaiton on the Child and theFamily • Parents – Disrupt usual routine – Fears/ anxiety – Coping abilities (made more difficult if lack of financial.
) . keep family “in the loop” – Provide information to family (ie teaching materials etc.Adaptation to Hospitalization • Parents – Tailor nursing care to family’s needs and preferences – Maintain positive communication with family – Ask for parents participation in care – Explain all aspects of treatment.
Adaptation to Hospitalization • Siblings – Inform siblings about their brother/ sister’s condition (using age-appropriate language and concepts at their developmental level) – Encourage siblings to visit (as appropriate) – Discuss what to expect before the visit w/ the child. then f/u on how they are feeling after. .
Adaptation to Hospitalization • Scheduled Admission – Child/ parent • Preparation – Tours – Play – Written visual material – Child Life – Talking with peers with similar experience (adolescents) .
Adaptation to Hospitalization • Refer to Box 17-4 (p 537): Nursing Considerations in Preparing Parents and Child for Planned Short-Stay Admission .
Adaptations to Hospitalization • Nurses can assist the parents in preparing the child for hospitalization by… – Read stories about the experience – Talk about going to the hospital – Encourage child to ask questions/ draw pictures – Visit hospital beforehand – Plan hospital stay/routine as much as possible – Be honest .
Bindler Child Health Nursing: Partnering with Children & Families © 2006 by Pearson Education. Based on your experience. Upper Saddle River.The child’s anxiety and fear often will be reduced if the nurse explains what is going to happen and demonstrates how the procedure will be done by using a doll. New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Inc. can you list five actions you can take to prepare a school-age child for hospitalization? FIGURE 17–2 Jane W. . Ball and Ruth C.
Upper Saddle River. . New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.Jasmine’s parents are taking the time to prepare her for hospitalization by reading a book recommended by the nurse. Such material should be appropriate to the child’s age and culture. Why do you think that having the parents read this material is valuable? FIGURE 17–3 Jane W. Inc. Bindler Child Health Nursing: Partnering with Children & Families © 2006 by Pearson Education. Ball and Ruth C.
Adaptation to Hospitalization • Unanticipated admission – Orientation to unit/environment • Explain all of the procedures • Opportunities for parents/ child to express fears • Stress-reduction methods .
Adaptation to Hospitalization • Special units and types of care: – Short-stay unit – Outpatient unit – Ambulatory surgical unit – General pediatric unit – Emergency Departments – NICU/ PICU – Acute care or long-term rehabilitative unit .
Adaptation to Hospitalization • Nursing care focuses on providing family-centered care – Promoting the child’s and family’s coping strategies to deal w/ hospitalization – Promoting optimal development and safety – Minimizing disruption of the child’s usual routine .
Safety Measures for the Hospitalized Child • Refer to Box 17-3 .
Nursing strategies to Improve the Illness/ Hospitalization Experience of Parents/ Children • Various Practice Settings – Emergency Department • Psychological considerations – Same day surgery • Thorough discharge teaching instructions .
Preoperative checklist • Refer to Box 17-7 .
Ball and Ruth C. New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. It is important to reunite the family as soon as possible after surgery.This child has just undergone surgery and is in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU). FIGURE 17–6 Jane W. Inc. . Although the child’s physical care is immediate and important. Upper Saddle River. Bindler Child Health Nursing: Partnering with Children & Families © 2006 by Pearson Education. remember that both the child and the family have strong psychosocial needs that must be addressed concurrently.
Nursing strategies to Improve the Illness/ Hospitalization Experience of Parents/ Children • Practice Settings – ICU • Psychological considerations – Parental decision making/ involvement in care – Hospital Care • Mediation administration – Developmental considerations .
Variations in Med Administration • Refer to Table 17-6: – Oral – Rectal – Ophthalmic and otic – Topical – Intramuscular – Intravenous .
Nursing strategies to Improve the Illness/ Hospitalization Experience of Parents/ Children • Hospital (con’t) – Educational needs • Individual education plan (IEP) – Teaching • Partnering w/ parents .
pre-medicate – Performing the procedure • Treatment room .Adaptation to Hospitalization • Preparation for Procedures – Psychological preparation • Using language the child understands – Physical preparation • Signed consent.
Assisting Children through procedures • Refer to Table 17-7: – Infant – Toddler – Preschool child – School-age child – Adolescent .
Strategies to Promote Coping and Normal Development of the Hospitalized Child • These strategies help to meet the psychosocial needs of the hospitalized child – Rooming in – Child Life Programs • Child life specialist – Therapeutic Play .
and any procedures necessary .Assessing the child and family in preparation for discharge • Assess the family’s ability to manage the child’s care • ? Any special adaptation to home environment/ or other facility • Collaborate w/ parents to teach them treatment procedures and proper equipment use – Have family member demonstrate proper care of equipment.
Professional Practice Standards for Pediatric Nursing Practice • Collecting health data • Analyzing the assessment data in determining diagnoses • Identifying expected outcomes individualized to the child and family • Developing a plan of care that prescribes interventions to attain expected outcomes • Implementing the interventions identified in the plan of care .