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Presented By

Dr. Md. Mazharul Hoque

Department of Civil Engineering and

Founding Director
Accident Research Institute (ARI) Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh.


Co-authors: Greg Smith, Regional Director, Asia Pacific,
International Road Assessment Programme (iRAP)

Md. Ashifur Rahman, Department of Civil

Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology

M. H. Md. Arif Uddin, Department of Civil

Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology

Presentation Outlines

How Serious is the Road Safety Problem How We are Dealing with the Problem iRAP and Road Infrastructure Safety Assessments

The Next Generation of Engineers

Brief Details of Bangladesh

Population: 160 million Area: 147570 sq. km. Density: 1000 people per sq. km. GDP: $750 (US) / capita Pop growth: 1.9% / annum Urban: 30% of population

Road Transport in Bangladesh

1.7 million motorized vehicles (50% + motorcycles)
1 million rickshaws

Motorized vehicles increased by about 200% in 15 years.

Road crashes are increasing alarmingly in rural areas. Vehicles expected to more than double in next 10 years.

Road Transport in Bangladesh

79% of passengers 73% of freight (2005) National Highway = 3,500 km

Regional Highway = 4,200 km

Zilla Road = 13,250 km Total Road Length = 21,000 km

Some Major Crashes

Head-on collision on N2 highway left 9 policemen dead (2011)

Head-on collision between truck and bus on N5, 18 killed (2011)

Head-on collision between a truck and a bus, 8 killed on N2 (2012)

Lost control crash on Feeder Road, nearly 50 killed (2011)

The Recent Devastating Crash

45 children die in Bangladesh road crash

All the factors were involved in the crash:
Excessive Speeding Incompetence of the driver Poor road and road side conditions Overloading The risky vehicle Inattentiveness of the driver

The Road Safety Problem

Road crashes in Bangladesh kill 4000 and injure 5000 per year. Actual fatalities could well be 20,038 each year (WHO, 2009). Death rate of 12.7 deaths per 100,000 population. Road crashes cost US$2000 million, nearly 2% of GDP. Bangladesh has a very high fatality rate, over 100 deaths per

10,000 motor vehicles.

Some Crash Characteristics

About 70% of fatalities in rural areas.

Crashes are highly clustered, 50% of crashes on 5% of highways.

Major crash types are: Hit pedestrian(45%), Rear end (16.5%), Head on (13.2%) and Loss control/overturning (9.3%). Almost 80% of fatalities are vulnerable road users (VRUs). Heavy vehicles, trucks & buses are over-involved.

About 2.5% of accidents on bridges & culverts.

Major Crash Types in Bangladesh (2000 vs. 2010)

Crash Type
Hit Pedestrian Head On Rear End Lost Control Others Total 1329 296 329 295 274 2523

53% 12% 13% 12% 11% 100% 988 330 266 171 167 1922

51% 17% 14% 9% 9% 100%

Road Length, Total Accidents and Fatal Percentage Distribution of Road Length, All Accidents & Fatal Accidents Road Accidents in National, by Regional and Classes Feeder Roads
90 80 70
Road Length Fatal Accidents All Accidents


60 50 40 30 20 10 0 National Highways Regional Roads Road Class Feeder Roads

Fatal accidents on Highways with Varying Speed Limits

35 30

No. of Fatal Accedents

25 20 15 10 5 0 2000 2001 2002 Year 2003 2004 40 Km/hr 60 Km/hr

Accidents are associated with higher speed limit zones

RHD Road Network Condition

(Surveyed in December 2010 to June 2011)
Length in Km

Road 1 National Highway Regional Highway Zilla Road TOTAL

Good 2 756 261 422

Fair 3 1441 1403 1503

Poor 4 743 1357 3234

Bad 5 345 475 2216

Total Very Bad Surveyed 6 7 78 107 313 3362 3602 7688

1438 (9.8 %)

4347 (29.7 %)

5333 (36.4 %)

3036 (20.7%)

498 (3.4%)


Area: 7,617,930 Population:22.8 m Road Length: 913,000 km Road Deaths: 1,368

Area: 147,570 Population:160 m Road Length: 273,000 km Road Deaths: 3,000/20000

Death rates on our highways are 10 times higher than that of Australian Highways and Britains most persistently high risk roads (iRAP)

Pedestrians: The Greatest Problem

Road Infrastructure Safety: A Priority

Road crashes: interactive factors of the road, the vehicle and the human.

The greatest potential to prevent road deaths is the road

themselves. In US, roads are a contributing factor in 53% of all road deaths. In Sweden, road conditions cause at least 59% of fatal crashes. In Bangladesh, crash characteristics indicate the problems with

road infrastructure.

Some Urgent Actions of Road Infrastructure Safety In Bangladesh

Accident Black Spot Treatments Road Safety Audits Road Inspections and Assessment

iRAP in Bangladesh
iRAP works in partnership with government and nongovernment organisations to:

inspect high-risk roads and develop Star Ratings and Safer

Roads Investment Plans. provide training, technology and support that will build and sustain national, regional and local capability. track road safety performance so that funding agencies can

assess the benefits of their investments.

iRAP in Bangladesh
In 2010, with the financial support of the FIA Foundation, the iRAP Bangladesh Pilot Project began to:

support the Government of Bangladesh and the Roads and

Highways Division (RHD)

support the Bangladesh Road Safety Coalition Project. provide a practical demonstration of the iRAP approach to safety.

iRAP Pilot Project in Bangladesh

1st Phase: 28 February 4 March, 2010 Preliminary discussion meetings with the Stakeholders and top Decision makers On road Field Assessment and Inspections of N2 & N3 Highways 2nd Phase: March August, 2010 Analysis of field data and preparation of reports Submission of technical report: draft preliminary and revised final report Review of preliminary iRAP assessment results for the N2 and N3 highways and the future actions (31 July 5 August, 2010) Preparation of MoU between iRAP and the RHD

Recent iRAP Activities at National Level

Launching of the UN Decade of Action for Road Safety Signing of iRAP-RHD MoU for Infrastructure Assessment and Capacity Building UN-ESCAP Road Safety Workshop on Developing National Road Safety Goals, Targets and Indicators in line with the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020 ADB assisted technical assistance project for road safety Launching of National Injury Prevention Strategy by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

UN Decade of Action and MoU Signing Between RHD and iRAP

The National Workshop Goals, Targets & Indicators

Group A : Institutional and Road Safety Management Group B : Road User Behaviour Group C : Road Infrastructure and Traffic Management Group D : Vehicle Standards and NMV/MTW Group E : Post Accident and Emergency Care

Road Safety Targets

Promoting road safety ownership and culture among road authorities, engineers and planners. Eliminating High Risk Roads on the network and promote safe system approach Integrating Road Safety Audit as mandatory requirements for development of safe new infrastructure. Establishment of Road Safety Assessment and Road Safety Inspection process. Ensuring crash protective roadsides. Increasing separate/secured Road space for pedestrians and Cyclists in Urban and Sub Urban Areas.

iRAP Field Demonstration

The pilot project focuses on two key roads: The Dhaka to Sylhet Highway (N2) , which is
approximately 229 km in length The Joydebpur to

Mymensingh Highway (N3), which is approximately

90km in length.
A screenshot from the inspection data, showing a typical section of the Dhaka to Sylhet Highway (N2)

Risk Assessment and Star Ratings

N2, Northbound, 9km Cars Motorcycles Pedestrians Bicycles

Speed = 80km/h

Hazardous roadside objects

Very high pedestrian flow

No footpath or crossing No median High overtaking demand


Poor shoulder

Wide lanes

Poor lines

Student Research Project on iRAP tools

iRAP Research Project

Assessing Star Ratings of Bangladesh Roads Using iRAP Tools: An Undergraduate CIVIL Engineering Research Project

Department of Civil Engineering BUET, Dhaka

Study Outlines
Introducing the Study Area Working Methodology Road Safety Assessment using iRAP tools

Dhaka-Aricha Highway (Part of N5) Details

Dhaka-Aricha highway considered as man-made death trap. Major rehabilitations were made including safety improvements. Dhaka-Aricha Hwy (N5) is 526.59 km Single Carriageway 508.78 km Dual Carriageway 17.81 km Shoulder Width: 1 m to 4 m. Pedestrians facilities seriously lacking.

Study Inception
Consultation and Communication with Mr. Greg Smith from iRAP. iRAP methodology was briefed in several sessions. Extensive group study and consultation was made.

Conduct of Field Study and Observations

Consultation with RHD official Gathered relevant information

The Project Team

Professor Dr. Md. Mazharul Hoque Department of Civil Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology Mr. Greg Smith, Regional Director, iRAP Asia Pacific Final year Civil Engineering students: Md. Ashifur Rahman Biswajit Kumar Bairgi Md. Hafez Ahmed M. H. Md. Arif Uddin

Road Inspection and Ratings

Typical Sections of N5 Highway Rated 2-stars

Overall Assessment of Star Ratings of the Study Area (27 km)

Star Rating

Vehicle occupants




Length Length Length Length Percentage (km) Percentage (km) Percentage (km) Percentage (km)

5 Star
4 Star 3 Star 2 Star 1 Star

73% 26% 0.4% 0%

19.8 7.1 0.1 0

0% 16% 58% 27%

0 4.3 15.5 7.2

0.4% 0.4% 99% 0.4%

0.1 0.1 26.7 0.1

0% 9.58% 90.42% 0%

0 2.6 24.4 0

Possible Countermeasures for N5

Reducing the likelihood and severity of run-off road and head-on crashes by widening shoulders, installing roadside safety barriers and median barriers. Reducing the likelihood and severity of pedestrian crashes by installing crossing facilities and footpaths. Reducing risk at intersections through grade separation, roundabouts and traffic signals. Reducing the risk of all crash types by managing speed to within tolerable limits.

Future Research Work

Further data acquisition and extension of current study. Preparation of Risk mappings and plotting of Road Protection Score by specific road user groups. Estimation of number of Deaths using Star Ratings and traffic volume data throughout the road network. Evaluation of countermeasure options to reduce deaths and injuries. Selection of Countermeasure options and assessment against affordability and economic effectiveness criteria.

The Way Forward

Bangladesh Government has been a keen supporter and launched the Decade of Action on Road Safety.
Bangladesh looking forward to the goals on reducing 50% of fatalities and serious injuries over 2011-2020.

With the finance of ADB, a new project of assessment of nearly 1500 km of highway is underway.
iRAP provides a strong basis to the development, implementation and monitoring of road safety strategy in Bangladesh throughout the Decade of Action.

The Way Forward

Safer Infrastructure: Some Examples