Mitosis Nuclear division
(somatic cells)

Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Importance: Growth Replacing worn out tissues Asexual reproduction

maintains

Cloning

CELL DIVISION

Chromosomes number

Meiosis I

Cytokinesis
Cytoplasmic division

Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I

Meiosis
(gonadic cells)

halves

Meiosis II
Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II

• All complex organisms originated from a single fertilised egg.

• Every cell in your body started here, through cell division the numbers are increased
• Cell then specialise and change into their various roles

• Mitosis is the process by which new body cell are produced for: • Growth • Replacing damaged or old cells. • Mitosis: Division of cell nucleus which results in the production of two identical daughter cells • Only occurs in somatic cells.
This is a complex process requiring different stages

Parent cell Chromosomes are copied and double in number Chromosomes now split 2 daughter cells identical to original .

into nerve or muscle tissue. .g. but only some act to make the cells specialise – e.• All daughter cells contain the same genetic information from the original parent cell from which it was copied. • Every different type cell in your body contains the same genes.

1 2 Cells split Parent cell 3 Chromosomes copied 4 5 Copies separating 2 daughter cells .

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Replacing dead or worn out cells eg: red blood cell. skin cells Increase the number of cells during growth and development Asexual reproduction eg: Amoeba sp (Binary fission) Elongation of root and shoot in plants Significance of mitosis .

the somatic cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes .• Chromosomes: • contain genes which determine the characteristics of the organism • Is a long molecule of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) which stores the genetic information • In humans.

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S phase Interphase G1 phase Prophase Cell cycle M phase (Mitotic) G2 phase Metaphase Mitosis Anaphase Cytokinesis Telophase .

• There are two main phases: • Interphase: G1. S. from the time it its formed until it divides completely into two. G2 • Cell division: Mitosis and cytokinesis .• Cell cycle: a cyclic sequence of events that a cell undergoes.

• G1 • Rapid growth of cells • Is the phase that decides whether or not to divide based on the environmental conditions • If the conditions are favorable for the cell to divide. the S phase • S • Replication of DNA • Duplication of chromosomes • G2 • Preparation for the cell division • The cells continue to grow . the cell will enter the next phase.

PROPHASE • Chromosomes shorten and thicken. becomes visible • Nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappears • Spindle threads emerges (timbul) • Chromosomes align (tersusun) along the equator of the cell METAPHASE • Spindle fibres (microtubules) connect the centrioles to the centromeres of the chromosomes .

ANAPHASE • The centromeres divide . the spindle fibres shorten • The chromatids pulled to the opposite poles • The chromatids are now referred to as daughter chromosomes TELOPHASE • The spindle fibres break down • Nuclear membrane and nucleolus reform • Chromosomes elongate .

• Happens after the mitotic division of nucleus.• Definition: the division of cytoplasm into two. .

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metaphase.DIFFERENCES SIMILARITIES Animal cell Plant cell Spindle threads do not emerge from centrioles Both involves interphase. prophase. anaphase and cytokinesis Spindle threads (microtubules) emerges from centrioles Nucleus and cytoplasm divides once Daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent cell Cytokinesis occurs by constriction of the cytoplasm Cytokinesis occurs by the formation of cell plate .

• Mitosis is a controlled process. tumour. . • It is necessary to ensure normal cell growth. development and maintenance • Uncontrolled mitosis: • Causing cancer • this happens because the growth occur without limit (uncontrolled cell division) • Cancer cells proliferate forming mass of abnormal cell.

• Cloning • Process of producing new individuals from a single parent by mitosis • Example: tissue culture ADVANTAGES Allows for the multiplication of useful gene in a shorter time Many identical plants with desired characteristics can be produced Overcoming the infertility problem DISADVANTAGES Clones have a shorter lifespan No genetic variation Diseases spread more faster .

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Cell division that occurs during the formation of gametes .

Gametes are haploid.A cell with 2 sets of chromosomes is referred to as diploid (2n). A cell with a single set of chromosomes is referred to as haploid (n). Somatic cells are diploid. .

Human somatic cell has 46 chromosomes 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes Human gametes 2n n ovum Fertilisation sperm 2n Zygote .

Sperm & Ovum Meiosis produces reproductive cells (gametes) Pollen grains & Egg cells .Meiosis is the process of nuclear division that reduces the number of chromosomes in new cells to half the number of chromosomes in the parent cell.

MEIOSIS I • Prophase I • Metaphase I • Anaphase I • Telophase I MEIOSIS II • Prophase II • Metaphase II • Anaphase II • Telophase II .

• The process is known as crossing over (pindah silang) • Nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappears.PROPHASE I • Homologous chromosomes pair up forming a bivalent • This pairing is called synapsis. • As centrioles moves to the opposite site. spindle fibre begins to form Crossing over . • Chromatids exchange the genetic material at points called chiasmata.

METAPHASE I • Homologous chromosomes arrange in pairs at the cell equator (satah khatulistiwa sel) • The assortment of chromosomes is random. this is known as independent assortment .

ANAPHASE I • The homologous chromosomes separates and move to opposite poles of the spindle .

• Nuclear membrane and nucleolus re-formed (terbentuk semula) • The cells later divides at the cytokinesis and forming two daughter cells.TELOPHASE I • As the chromosomes reach poles. • Chromosomes in daughter cells still consists of two chromatids . the spindle threads disappear.

• Each chromosomes is now unpaired .PROPHASE II • The two daughter cells from meiosis I prepare for second meiotic division • Nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear again. • Formation of new spindle begins.

ANAPHASE II • Centromeres separated and chromatids move to opposite poles of the cell. .METAPHASE II • Chromosomes arrange themselves at the new cell equator.

• Nucleolus and nuclear membrane reformed. .TELOPHASE II • Chromosomes reach the poles and spindle threads disappears.

all four haploid cells are different from each other in their genetic composition .CYTOKINESIS • Second cytokinesis occurs. As the cytoplasm divides. • Due to cross over in meiosis I. four daughter cells are formed (haploid) .

Prophase • Homologous chromosomes go through the synapsis and become bivalent • Number of chromosomes: 2n • Cross-over occurs • Homologous chromosomes arranged on the metaphase plate • Homologous chromosomes separated towards the poles • Centromeres are still attached • Chromatids remain together • Nuclear membrane re-formed • Two daughter cells are formed.PHASE Interphase MEIOSIS I Occurs MEIOSIS II Do not occurs • No homologous chromosomes • Number of chromosomes: n • No cross-over occurs • Chromosomes arranged on the metaphase plate • Centromere separated • Chromatids separate and move towards opposite poles of the cells • Nuclear membrane re-formed • Four daughter cells are formed. Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis .

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The diploid number is restored upon fertilization .SIGNIFICANCE OF MEIOSIS Due to the crossing over and independent assortment of chromosomes. the gametes formed are all genetically different (variations) Chromosome number is halved from the diploid number (2n) to the haploid number (n).

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Mitosis Meiosis .

Mitosis Meiosis .

MITOSIS DIFFERENCES Somatic cells For growth and asexual reproduction Process occurs in Purpose Synapsis. crossing over and independent assortment of chromosomes Number of cytokinesis Number of daughter cells formed Chromosomes number of daughter cells formed at the end of process Genetic constitution of daughter cells MEIOSIS Germ cells ( cells which produce gametes) To produce gametes for sexual reproduction Do not occur Occurs Once Two Twice Four Diploid Daughter cells are all genetically identical the same as their parent cell Haploid Daughter cells are all genetically different .

Duplication of chromosomes occurs only once before both divisions .MITOSIS SIMILARITIES MEIOSIS 1. Both involve prophase. Both are nuclear divisions 2. anaphase and telophase 3. metaphase. Replication of DNA occurs during interphase before both divisions 4.

the fertililised abnormal gametes will caused the offspring to have extra or less chromosomes • Types of diseases caused by such errors are: • Down’s syndrome • Turner syndrome • Klinefelter’s syndrome • Mutation – changes in genetic information • Results: cancer • Induced by: ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. radioactive rays and carcinogenic substance • Eg: radioactive rays ( gamma rays) . carcinogens (sodium nitrite.• Abnormal number of chromosomes is caused by the error that occurred spindle thread. benzene) . afflatoxin. • In meiosis.

.• to be continued….

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