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Oil & Gas Measurement
1. Flowrate : Flowrate = Pa = = = = Volume Time Pg + Patm = Q t
2. Absolute Pressure : 3. Absolute Temp. :
°R °K Conversion of Temp: °F
°F + 460 °C + 273 9 (°C) + 32 5 5 (°F - 32) 9
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Oil & Gas Measurement (Cont’d)
4. Standard Press.& Temp : 5. Standard Condition : 14.7 psia & 60°F Standard P & T
When P < atmospheric pressure, vacuum is expressed in inches of mercury.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Oil & Gas Measurement (Cont’d)
7. Fluid Level
8. Static Head
: Fluid Level
: Static Head(ft)
= height of liquid
P . = P . 0.433 x S.G Static Head(feet) = P x 2.31 S.G 9. Fluid Gradient: Pressure Gradient = Pressure (psi) Head (ft) Water Gradient = 0.433 psi/ft Pressure Gradient for any Fluid = 0.433 x S.G Pressure = Head x Pressure Gradient
Types:. Flowmeter (or Meter) A device used to measure flowrates. .Turbine Meters .DEFINITION OF TERMS Oil & Gas Measurement (Cont’d) 10. Meter Calibration (Proving) Monitoring the accuracy of the meter.Orifice Meters 11.Positive-Displacement Meters .
DEFINITION OF TERMS Oil & Gas Measurement (Cont’d) 12.7 psia & 60°F 14. Standard Cubic Foot (SCF) A cubic foot at 14.7 psia & 60°F. Meter Factor MF is determined by proving MF = Prover Reading Meter Reading 13. . Stock Tank Barrel (STB) A barrel at 14.
DEFINITION OF TERMS CORROSION 1. Corrosion Prevention Protection of equipment and facilities against corrosion : painting. . cathodic protection… etc. use of inhibitors. coating. Corrosion Rate Rate of metal loss in MPY: One Mil = 0.01 inch 2.
Corrosion Inhibitor A chemical that forms a thin film to isolate equipment and pipeline surfaces from the corrosive medium 4. Cathodic Protection Installation of DC circuit with sacrificial anodes or DC transformer to prevent metal loss. .DEFINITION OF TERMS CORROSION (Cont’d) 3.
Filtration Aid Causes coalescence of very fine solids so that they can be removed by filters. Biocide A chemical additive used to kill bacteria. 3. Corrosion Inhibitor A chemical used to prevent corrosion 2.DEFINITION OF TERMS CHEMICAL ADDITIVES 1. .
.Commonly used in water injection systems. Demulsifier Used to break water-oil emulsion .Used to remove oxygen from liquids or solutions. 5. Oxygen Scavenger .DEFINITION OF TERMS CHEMICAL ADDITIVES (Cont’d) 4.
Pigging Running a pig in a pipeline to clean its internal surface.DEFINITION OF TERMS PIPELINES 1. bends. Expansion Joint Used in pipelines to compensate for line expansion/contraction. wall thickness. deformations … etc. Pig A device used to clean internal pipeline surfaces by pumping it through the line. 3. Intelligent Pig A pig that can monitor pipeline geometry such as ID. . 2. 4.
Hydrate Formation Formation of ice-like solid material in pipelines. 6. Pig Launcher A piping assembly used to pump pigs in the line safely. Pig Receiver Same like launcher but it receives pigs.DEFINITION OF TERMS PIPELINES (Cont’d) 5. . 7.
Gr = MW of Gas MW of Air W = 62. Specific Gravity Liquids : Sp.DEFINITION OF TERMS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 1. Gr = Density of Liquid Density of Water Gases : Sp.966 ~ 29 .4 lb/ft3 MW of air = 28.
5 Sp.DEFINITION OF TERMS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES (Cont’d) 2.5 Crude Oils API Gravity < 20 : Heavy Crude : Medium Crude : Light Crude API from 20 to 30 API > 30 . 131.Gr. API Gravity API Gravity = 141.
DEFINITION OF TERMS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES (Cont’d) 3.sec / cm2) pound. Units: Absolute viscosity Kinematic Viscosity Kinematic Viscosity : poise (dyne.) : ft2/sec. Viscosity The viscosity of a liquid is a measure of its internal friction tending to resist flow.sec/ft2 : stoke (cm2/sec. : Absolute Viscosity Density .
U.The most commonly used viscosimeter for oils is the “Saybolt viscosimeter”.S. . . or S. Viscosity (Cont’d) Viscosimeters . .U.S.).DEFINITION OF TERMS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES (Cont’d) 3.Devices used in viscosity measurement. Units : Saybolt Universal Seconds (S.It measures the viscosity in seconds for 60 CC through the universal orifice.
6. Flash Point The minimum temperature at which the liquid vapors can be ignited by an ignition source (vapors are enough to be ignited). . For hydrocarbon mixtures there are two boiling points : IBP & FBP. Boiling Point (BP) The point at which the vapour pressure is equal to the ambient pressure. 5. Dew Point The point at which the first condensate droplet starts to form.DEFINITION OF TERMS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES (Cont’d) 4.
pH Value The pH value is used to express the degree of acidity or alkalinity of solutions.DEFINITION OF TERMS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES (Cont’d) 7. pH pH pH < 7 = 7 > 7 for acidic solutions (corrosive solutions) for neutral solutions for alkaline solutions (tendency to form scales). Pour Point The minimum temperature at which a liquid can be poured. 8. .
Units of salinity : PPM (Parts per million parts) 10. Explosivity The possibility of causing an explosion. . Hydrocarbon vapours and air mixtures can cause explosions at a certain ratio. Salinity Salt content of seawater and formation water is called “Salinity”.DEFINITION OF TERMS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES (Cont’d) 9. which lies between two limits : Low Explosive Limit and High Explosive Limit. Salt Content Used for crude oils Units : pounds per thousand barrels (ptb) 11.
DEFINITION OF TERMS MACHENERY 1. COMBUSTION . VIBRATION 4. STROKE LENGTH 3. STROKE 2.
Natural Gas A naturally occurring complex mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon constituents. Hydrocarbons Sabstances composed of carbon and hydrogen such as crude oil. 3. butane and pentane plus.DEFINITION OF TERMS PRODUCTION / PROCESS 1. It can be either associated gas or non-associated gas. 2. Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Liquefied propane. . natural gas and petroleum products.
Formation A rock layer or bed. . Formation Water The underground water that is produced with oil & gas. Condensate The gas that condenses during production. 5.DEFINITION OF TERMS PRODUCTION / PROCESS (Cont’d) 4. Oils The heavier hydrocarbon fractions that are generally liquid at atmospheric conditions. 6. 7.
BS&W = Volume of Sediments & Water Total Volume Produced 9.DEFINITION OF TERMS PRODUCTION / PROCESS (Cont’d) 8. Water Cut = Volume of Water Produced Total Volume Produced 10. Basic Sediments & Water (BS&W) Sediments and water that are produced with crude oils. Gas-Oil Ratio (GOR) GOR = Volume of Gas SCF/STB Volume of Net Oil Water Cut .
. 13. Volume of Liquid (Oil&Water) Any formation that contains crude oil in commercial amounts. Gas Reservoir Any formation that contains natural gas with no existence of crude oil. Gas-Liquid Ratio (GLR) GLR 12.DEFINITION OF TERMS PRODUCTION / PROCESS (Cont’d) 11. Oil Reservoir = Volume of Gas .
DEFINITION OF TERMS PRODUCTION / PROCESS (Cont’d) 14. Condensate Reservoir A formation that contains gas but this gas condenses during production. . 16. Manifold A piping assembly that gathers a number of flowlins in one larger size line in order to divert the commingled production to the gas-oil separator. 15. Flowline Flowlines transmit fluids produced from wells to the gas-oil separation plant.
Header Each manifold includes two headers: One for production and the other for testing. 18. Free Water Formation water that separates in less than 5 minutes. 20. Emulsion A water and oil mixture that cannot be separated easily. It normally needs heating. .DEFINITION OF TERMS PRODUCTION / PROCESS (Cont’d) 17. 19. chemicals and fresh water in order to be separated. Multistage Separation Separation of oil and gas in more than one stage.
Heater Treater A vessel used in treatment of water and oil emulsions by the use of heat. fresh water and demulsifiers. 24. Emulsifier A chemical used to break water and oil emulsions. 23. . Treating Tank A tank used in crude oil dehydration and desalting. Electrostatic Treater A heater treater in which electric grids are installed. 22.DEFINITION OF TERMS PRODUCTION / PROCESS (Cont’d) 21.
28. Sweet Crude No sulphur compounds . Storage Tank A tank used in crude oil storage 26. 27. Dry Crude A crude oil that is free of formation water.DEFINITION OF TERMS PRODUCTION / PROCESS (Cont’d) 25. Wet Crude A crude oil containing formation water.
31. Sour Gas Contains sulphur compounds or acid gases such as H2S & CO2.1 USG/MMSCF .DEFINITION OF TERMS PRODUCTION / PROCESS (Cont’d) 29. Wet Gas Condensates (C5+) > 0. Sour Crude Contains sulphur compounds 30. Sweet Gas No sulphur compounds or acid gases 32.
> 0. Rich Gas (C3 +) 36. Dry Gas Condensates (C5 +) 34. Lean Gas (C3 +) < 0.DEFINITION OF TERMS PRODUCTION / PROCESS (Cont’d) 33. Condensate A hydrocarbon liquid consisting of C5+.1 USG/MMSCF 35.7 USG/MMSCF < 0.7 USG/MMSCF .
Crude Oil Stabilization Removal of the volatile components to minimize vapour losses during storage. . Dehydration Removal of formation water from crude oil or gas. Desalting Removal of salt or salt water 39. Crude Oil Sweetening Removal of sulphur compounds.DEFINITION OF TERMS PRODUCTION / PROCESS (Cont’d) 37. 38. 40.
42. Two-Phase Separator Separates gas and liquid . Gas Sweetening Removal of sulphur compounds or acid gases (H2S & CO2).DEFINITION OF TERMS PRODUCTION / PROCESS (Cont’d) 41. Single-Phase Flow Only liquid or gas 43. 44. Two-Phase Flow Flow of liquid and gas in a mixture.
Tank Battery A number of tanks installed in the same location in a certain arrangement.DEFINITION OF TERMS PRODUCTION / PROCESS (Cont’d) 45. . 47. Tank Farm Includes a number of tank batteries. Three-Phase Separator Separates gas. oil and water. 46.
. Injectivity Index (II) = Q Ps . Wireline Zero Level (WZL) The swab valve level.Pwf PI = Q Pwi . Producitvity Index (PI) PI 49.DEFINITION OF TERMS PRODUCTION / PROCESS (Cont’d) 48.Ps 50.
1 DEFINITION OF TERMS USED IN OIL INDUSTRY .MODULE .