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Qualitative Research Techniques
These techniques are relatively unstructured measurement approaches whereby a range of possible consumer responses is permitted. There are also many different ways to uncover the types of associations linked to the brand and their corresponding strength, Favorability and uniqueness. These techniques are often employed to identify possible brand associations and sources of brand equity. These measures are best used to provide in-depth insight into what specific brands, products, and services mean to consumers.
Qualitative Research Techniques
Qualitative methods allow marketers to probe consumers either through direct questions or through tasks that indirectly reveal perceptions and attitudes. Such methods, which permit a relatively unlimited range of verbal consumer responses, include free
association tasks, projective techniques, and descriptions of a brand’s personality and values, among others.
Data gathered through qualitative research generally must be coded and aggregated before it is useful.
Qualitative Research Techniques
Free Association tasks whereby subjects are asked what comes to mind when they think of the brand without any more specific probe or cue than perhaps the associated product category. The primary purpose of free association tasks is to identify the range of possible brand associations in consumers’ minds but they may also provide rough indication of the relative strength, Favorability and uniqueness of brand associations. What do you like best about the brand? What are its positive aspects? What do you dislike? What are its disadvantages? What do you find unique about the brand? How is it different from other brands? In what ways is it the same?
and durable Functional Honest.5 . shrink-to-fit cotton fabric. button-fly. long lasting. rugged. and universal Comfortable fitting and relaxing to wear Experiential Feelings of self-confidence and self-assurance Symbolic BENEFITS 9. American. classic. hard-working. two-horse patch. and small red pocket tag LEVI’S 501 High quality. traditional. approachable.Free Associations ATTRIBUTES User Imagery Product-Related Western. Contemporary. independent. and masculine Usage Imagery Appropriate for outdoor work and casual social situations Brand Personality Blue denim. blue collar. strong.
Projective techniques Diagnostic tools to uncover the true opinions and feelings of consumers when they are unwilling or otherwise unable to express themselves on these matters Consumers might feel that it would be socially unacceptable to express their true feelings Examples: Completion and interpretation tasks Comparison tasks 9.6 .
7 .The Rorschach inkblot test I see a face in the card I see a scary face in the card Things look like they're whirling around in the card It looks like we're looking down on people or something in the card I see a mask in the card I see a flower in the card 9.
8 . The stories and conversations told through bubble exercises and picture interpretations can be especially useful to assess user and usage imagery for a brand. 9. Consumers are then asked to figuratively fill the bubble by indicating what they believe is happening or being said in the scene. are placed in the scenes to represent the thoughts.Completion and Interpretation Tasks Empty bubbles as found in cartoons. words. or actions of one or more of the participants in the scene.
occupations. 9.9 . vegetables. nationalities. countries. or even other brands. animals.Comparison Tasks Consumers are asked to convey their impressions by comparing brands to people. magazines. activities. cars. fabrics.
Wong told him that he should _____________. he wanted to deposit it in an automatic teller machine.Sentence Completion Automatic teller machine users are __________________________________________________ _________ Automatic teller machines may be convenient. Albert Lee had received a large commission by check just before leaving home for a holiday trip. because ___________. 9. because _____________. but they _____________________________________ My major concern about automatic teller machines is _____________________________________ Unfinished Scenario Completion Since Mr.10 . but his friend Mr.
the other balloon is empty. While the speech of one character is shown in his/her balloon.Cartoon Completion Test In the cartoon technique. Deposit this cheque nearest ATM in the 9.11 . the respondent is shown a comic-strip like cartoon with two characters in a conversation. The respondent is asked to assume the role of the other person and fill the empty balloon with a speech.
12 .New approach: ZMET Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) ZMET is ―a technique for eliciting interconnected constructs that influence thought and behavior.‖ 9.
ZMET The guided conversation consists of a series of steps that includes some or all of the following: Story telling Missed images Sorting task Construct elicitation The most representative picture Opposite images Sensory images Mental map Summary image Vignette 9.13 .
and cheerful) Excitement (daring. and successful) Sophistication (upper class and charming) Ruggedness (outdoorsy and tough) Jennifer Aaker. spirited. and up-todate) Competence (reliable. wholesome. 1997 9. The Big Five Sincerity (down-to-earth.Brand Personality and Values Brand personality refers to the human characteristics or traits that can be attributed to a brand.14 . intelligent. imaginative.
15 .Identifying Key Brand Personality Associations Ranbir Kapoor Imran Khan Chocolate Mobile Phone Apparels Fast Food 9.
9. given business travelers Polaroid cameras and diaries to capture their feelings when in hotel rooms.Experiential Methods By tapping more directly into their actual home. work.16 . researchers might be able to elicit more meaningful responses from consumers. Advocates of the experiential approach have sent researchers to consumers’ homes in the morning to see how they approach their days. and conducted ―beeper studies‖ in which participants are instructed to write down what they’re doing when they are paged. or shopping behaviors.
9. Thus Experiential Methods are of great help to the researchers wherein By tapping more directly into their actual home. and conducted deeper studies. consumers may not be able to fully express their true selves as part of a formalized research study. Many a times.17 . researchers might be able to elicit more meaningful responses from consumers. have given business travelers Polaroid cameras and diaries to capture their feelings when in hotel rooms. work. or shipping behaviors. Researchers are sent to the consumers homes in the morning to see how they approach their days.
18 .Quantitative Research Techniques Awareness Image Brand responses Brand relationships 9.
. where the brand name. logo. logo. packaging and so on will be physically present and visible then brand recognition will be important 9. the brand name.e. character. packaging and slogan Choosing the appropriate measure depends on the relative importance of brand awareness for consumer behaviour in the category and the resulting role it plays in the success of the marketing programme for the brand As per one research reveals that many consume decisions are made at the point of purchase.19 . symbol.Awareness Brand Awareness is related to the strength of the brand in memory as reflected by consumers’ ability to identify various brand elements I.
Apart from the above. the other example would as follows: Brand name recognition could be tested with missing letters Tachistoscope (T-scope) and eye tracking 9. The most basic type of recognition procedure gives consumers a set of individual items visually or orally and asks them if they thought that they have previously seen or heard of these items.Brand Awareness Brand Recognition relates to consumer's ability to identify the brand under a variety of circumstances and can involve identification of any of the brand elements.20 .
Consumers must retrieve the actual brand element from memory when given some related probe or cue.Unaided Recall .Top of the Mind Slot .Unrecalled Brands Unaided Recalls on the basis of ―all brands‖ provided as a cue is likely to identify only the very strongest brands Aided Recalls uses various types of cues to help consumer recall. 9. One possible sequence of aided recall might use progressively narrower cues – such as product class.21 .Aided Recall . Different measure of brand recall are: .Brand Awareness In Brand Recall. product category and product type labels – to provide consumers’ brand knowledge structures.
The advantage of aided recall measures is that they yield insight into how brand knowledge is organized in memory and what kind of cues or reminders may be necessary for consumers to be able to retrieve the brand from memory. 9.22 Strategic implications . The important point to note is that the category structure that exists in consumers’ minds—as reflected by brand recall performance—can have profound implications for consumer choice and marketing strategy.Awareness Corrections for guessing Any research measure must consider the issue of consumers making up responses or guessing.
9. favorability.23 . These associations should be rated on scales for quantitative analysis.Image Lower level considerations are related to consumer perceptions of specific performance and imagery attributes and benefits. Ask open-ended questions to tap into the strength. and uniqueness of brand associations. Lower-level considerations are about the brand in their minds to form different types of brand responses and evaluations.
24 . Brand Concept Maps(BCM) elicits brand association networks (Brand Maps) from consumers and aggregates individual maps into a consensus map. 9. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) is a procedure for determining the perceived relative images of a set of objects. such as product or brands.
month. or year) 9.Brand Responses Research in psychology suggests that purchase intentions are most likely to be predictive of actual purchase when there is correspondence between the two in the following categories: Purchase Intentions Action (buying for own use or to give as a gift) Target (specific type of product and brand) Context (in what type of store based on what prices and other conditions) Time (within a week.25 .
measures could explore word-of-mouth behavior. attitudinal attachment. online behavior.26 . in terms of engagement. and so forth in depth 9.Brand Relationships Brand Relationships in terms of brand resonance and offered possible measures for each of the four key dimensions: behavioral loyalty. sense of community and active engagement Behavioral loyalty: brand usage & attitude Brand substitutability: brand bought last time & if that is not available what would you have done Other brand resonance dimensions For example.
5. 4.Fournier’s Brand Relationships Research (BRQ) BRQ is a multifaceted hierarchical structure that includes six main facets: 1. Interdependence Self concept connection Commitment Love/passion Intimacy Brand partner loyalty 9. 6.27 . 3. 2.
28 .Comprehensive Models of Customer-Based Brand Equity Brand dynamics Equity engines Young & Rubicam’s Brand Asset Valuator (BAV) 9.
The five levels of the model are: Presence Relevance Performance Advantage Bonding 9.Brand Dynamics The Brand Dynamics model adopts a hierarchical approach to determine the strength of relationship a consumer has with a brand.29 .
whether as a longstanding leader or as a pioneer in innovation Identification: The closeness customers feel for a brand and how well they feel the brand matches their personal needs Approval: The way a brand fits into the wider social matrix and the intangible status it holds for experts and friends 9.Equity Engines This model delineates three key dimensions of brand affinity—the emotional and intangible benefits of a brand—as follows: Authority: The reputation of a brand.31 .
Young & Rubicam’s Brand Asset Valuator (BAV) BAV is a database of consumer perception of brands created and managed by Brand Asset Consulting. as well as a set of strategic brand management tools for planning brand extensions. and other strategies designed to maintain and grow brand value. joint branding ventures. 9.33 . There are five key components of brand health in BAV—the five pillars. a division of Young & Rubicam Brands to provide information to enable firms to improve the marketing decision-making process and to manage brands better. BAV provides comparative measures of the equity value of thousands of brands across hundreds of different categories.
including • Brand health • Brand imagery / personality • Usage • Consideration • Loyalty 9.000+ respondents • Quarterly data 72 different brand metrics.BrandAsset® Valuator (BAV) Over 750.000 brands • 275 studies • 51 countries • 18 years' worth of data • US panel of 17.34 .000 consumers • 50.
35 . Differentiation Relevance Esteem Knowledge Young & Rubicam’s Brand Asset Valuator (BAV) 9. Each pillar is derived from various measures that relate to different aspects of consumers’ brand perceptions and that together trace the progression of a brand’s development.
and maintained by offering a set of differentiating promises to consumers. This gauges the personal appropriateness of a brand to consumers and is strongly tied to household penetration (the percentage of households that purchase the brand).36 2. And by delivering those promises to leverage value. Relevance is the actual and perceived importance of the brand to a large consumer market segment. A brand should be as unique a possible. 9. . Brand health is built.1. Differentiation is the ability for a brand to be distinguished from its competitors.
Knowledge is the extent of the consumer’s awareness of the brand and understanding its identity. and what it means.3. The awareness levels about the brand. Both vary by country and culture. True knowledge of the brand comes through building of the brand. 4. shows the intimacy that consumers share with the brand. Esteem is the perceived quality and consumer perceptions about the growing or declining popularity of a brand.37 . 9. Does the brand keep its promises? The consumer’s response to a marketer’s brand building activity is driven by his perception of two factors: quality and popularity.
Examples: Harley Davidson Yahoo! AOL Williams-Sonoma Ikea Bloomberg Business News 9..38 Differentiation Relevance Room to grow.Healthy Brands Have Greater Differentiation than Relevance 100 D>R 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 When Differentiation is greater than Relevance. This reflects a new niche or luxury brand. Brand has power to build relevance. interest and now can build Relevance and penetration. . This type of brand has more creativity than functionality. the brand has captured attention..
price becomes dominant reason to buy. It may also be more rational than creative. Examples: Exxon Mott’s McDonald’s Crest Minute Maid Fruit of the Loom Peter Pan (peanut butter) 9. it may still be vital. .Brands with greater Relevance than Differentiation Are in Danger of Becoming Commodities 100 R>D 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 If a brand is more Relevant that it is Differentiated. but its uniqueness is fading and price or convenience is becoming a dominant reason to buy.39 Differentiation Relevance Uniqueness has faded.
. There is growth potential in this brand.More Esteem than Knowledge Means. ―I’d like to get to know you better‖ 100 E>K 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Esteem Knowledge When a brand's Esteem is greater than Knowledge.40 Brand is better liked than known. Examples: Coach leatherwear Tag Heuer Calphalon Movado Blaupunkt Pella Windows Palm Pilot Technics 9. Consumers are curious to find out more. it is liked but not well-known.
If Knowledge is greater than Esteem. and consumers are not interested in knowing it better.Too Much Knowledge Can Be Dangerous: ―I know you and you’re nothing special‖ 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 K>E Too much knowledge can be a bad thing. . They are probably looking for better options Examples: Plymouth TV Guide Spam Woolworths Chrysler Maxwell House National Enquirer Sanka 9.41 Esteem Knowledge Brand is better known than liked. the brand has become too familiar.
and relevance combine to become brand energy. Lagging Indicators of brand health: Brand Stature (Esteem and Knowledge together). These two pillars point to the brand’s future value. . rather than just reflecting its past.A Two-Dimensional Framework for Diagnosing Brands: The Power Grid BrandAsset® Valuator Brand Strength Brand Stature Differentiation Relevance Esteem Knowledge Leading Lagging Leading Indicators of brand health: Brand Strength( differentiation. It is like a report card on brand’s past performance.
Brand Health Is Captured on the PowerGrid .
BAV uses a two-dimensional plot to measure Brand Strength and Brand Stature.44 . Knowledge]. Brand Stature reflects current perceived performance. Energy and Relevance] and stature is measured on the horizontal ―xaxis‖ [Esteem. Brands are plotted on the PowerGrid to illustrate a brand's curent stage of development and relative brand health across categories and constituencies 9. The strength is measured on the vertical ―y-axis‖ [Differentiation. Brand Strength illustrates future growth value and momentum potential of brands.
New brands begin in the lower left quadrant – with low strength. As the brand develops. brands should be strategically leveraged to move to the upper right quadrant. When brands get into trouble. it rises to the upper left quadrant – where strength is significantly higher than stature. The Power Grid provides a model for mapping and diagnosing the life of a brand. where powerful leadership brands reside.45 . there is a huge loss in intangible value 9. This loss in Differentiation reduces the ability to extend the brand across new consumer and market segments. This is high margin territory. the first thing to erode is Differentiation. As a result. causing leadership brands to decline. In order to maximize shareholder value. low stature. It is here where niche brands and brands with unrealized potential reside.
BAV’s energy relates to CBBE’s favorability of associations. BAV’s esteem relates to CBBE’s favorability of brand associations.46 . BAV’s relevance relates to CBBE’s strength of brand associations (as well as perhaps favorability). BAV’s differentiation relates to CBBE’s uniqueness of brand associations.Commonalty Between the Basic BAV Model and the CBBE Framework BAV’s knowledge relates to CBBE’s brand awareness and familiarity. 9.
Advantages of Young & Rubicam’s Brand asset Valuator Brand Asset Valuator is an important tool to assess a brand’s current achievements and stature.47 . 9. Brand Asset Valuator can help managers understand marketplace opportunities and the types of risk that go with them. Combining exhaustive amounts of consumer data with a proven model of brand-building. Brand Asset Valuator anticipates future operating earnings and operating margins. Y&R’s Brand Asset Valuator offers this opportunity. This can enhance the marketing-decision process in a variety of substantive ways. It can provide a deeper understanding of consumer behavior: for example. shedding light on reasons why some segments are willing to pay a higher price for a highly differentiated brand. It is even more powerful when the future potential of a brand can also be measured.
focusing on leading indicators instead of lagging. It is predictive.‖ Brand Asset Valuator also helps to determine a brand’s elasticity and helps to explore beneficiary brand alliances. Brand Asset Valuator is not only just useful for creating brands. It is exhaustive in every way. It is useful for managing brands in the long term— through ups and downs. it evaluates a brand in the entire world of brands. not in its ―category. Brand Asset Valuator stands apart from other brand study aids in a number of ways. size and scope.48 . Most importantly. Lastly. 9.
9. Another disadvantage associated with BAV is that the measures underlying the four factors may not be relevant across a wide range of product categories and thus these factors tend to be abstract in nature and might not be related directly to product attributes or benefits and more specific marketing concerns.49 .Disadvantages of Young & Rubicam’s Brand asset Valuator The major disadvantage associated with Young & Rubicam’s Brand asset Valuator is that it is proprietary in nature and can be employed only by Young and Rubicam.
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