Presentation on

:

Advances in design and construction of hatcheries

Presented by: GUNJAN KARNATAK AQC-PA2-01 AQUACULTURE DIVISION

Outline :
• FRESHWATER FIN FISH HATCHERIES

• Carp hatcheries • Catfish hatcheries

• Mahseer hatcheries
• Trout hatcheries

Important considerations in Design and Construction of Hatchery
• Biological • Economical • Target of production • Ease of operation • Minimization of operating costs- e.g. labour • Minimization of stress • Disease prevention

•SITE SELECTION •PLANNING OF LAYOUT •LISTING VARIOUS REQUIREMENTS •SPECIFICATIONS •CONSTRUCTION

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

DEVELOPMENTS IN CARP HATCHERIES
1. HATCHING PITS 2. CHITAGOAN TYPE OF HATCHING PITS 3. GLASS JAR HATCHERY 4. TRANSPARENT POLYTHENE JAR HATCHERY 5. SHIRGUR BIN HATCHERY 6. HANGING DIPNET HATCHERY 7. PLASTIC BUCKET HATCHERY 8. LDPE-D-80 MODEL 9. LDPE-D-81 MODEL 10. PORTABLE CIRCULAR HATCHERY 11. CEMENT CIRCULAR HATCHERY

HATCHING PITS
 most primitive type of
    hatching device used in the bundh type of breeding in W.B dug in the ground ( 3x2x1) inner wall plastered with mud Capacity/ pit : 3000 to 4000 eggs
DISADVANTAGES:

• not suitable for large scale spawn production • leads to mass mortality of the spawn

HATCHING HAPA
• introduced by Dr.Alikuni
• 2 separate Hapa 1. Outer hapa (1.8x0.9x0.9m, markin cloth) 2. Inner hapa (1.75x0.75x0.5m , mosquito net)

Capacity : 0.075 to.1 million egg

MERITS  Used for very small scale spawn production  Cheap  Requires less or no technical knowledge  Separates egg shell from the hatchling effectively

DEMERITS  Water quality cannot be controlled  The predatory fishes from outside can damage the hatchling through the hapa layers  Needs frequent replacement

Floating Hapa
• 2.1×1.1×1.2 m fitted in frame

of plastic pipe Outer- 2×1×1 m

• Inner- 1×0.5×0.5 m

Capacity, 75,000 to 1,00,000 eggs

TUB HATCHERY • • • • • • Improvement over fixed hapa Provide for hatching in running waters Fertilized eggs are transferred in a series of galvanized iron hatching tubs have a regular flow of water 8-12 hatching tubs are connected to each other Each tub is of 2.5’ ×2.5’ ×1.5’, has two nets Constant current of water through inner connecting pipes assure supply of water for developing eggs

GLASS JAR HATCHERY
• Introduced in India by Dr.Bhomic • Designed by CICFRI • Comprises of 4 parts: 1) Water supply system 2)Breeding tank 3)Incubation or hatching jars 4)Spawnery

BREEDING TANKS  Overhead showers are fitted  2-3 breeding tanks are required for 20 glass jar  Dimension -2x1x1 or 1.8x0.9x0.9m INCUBATION JARS  Cylindrical towards top and bottom funnel shape  Cylindrical part is 40.5 cm length 13 cm dia.  Inner and outer diameter at the bottom end are 1 and 1.27 cm respectively Capacity of each jar 6.35 l and accommodates 50000 developing eggs  Water supply is through the bottom and regulated by bibcork

SPAWNERY  Overhead showers are also fitted in it.  Dimension- 1.8xO.9x0.9m.  a nylon hapa is fitted on a frame placed inside cement system. OPERATION  It takes 12-15 hrs to hatch out at normal water of 26-27˚C  For IMC 0.6 to 0.8L/min EMC 0.8 to 1L/min

FIG. Tank for spawners

FIG. Cross section of the hatchery

FIG. Details of the hatching jars

FIG. Details of the larvae rearing tank

MERITS  Can be adopted for large scale operation.  Easy view of egg and larvae.  Do not require much water  Simple in design  Water quality can be controlled

DEMERITS  Need constant vigil and care  Becomes translucent in use  Can break  Possibility of escape of egg through outlet

TRANSPERENT POLYTHENE HATCHERY
• Same as glass jar hatchery, but polythene is used for hatching jar • Jar is 27cm in ht. and 10 cm dia • Can hold 2 l of water • Provision of egg container • Flow of water is 1 l/min

Plastic hatchery jar

FIG. Plastic hatchery jar

SHIRGUR BIN HATCHERY
 Also termed as aluminum bin hatchery  It has one rectangular aluminium container and three egg vessel  Dimension: 54x18x22 inches : devided into 3 equal parts  Parts 1. inlet 2. outlet 3. drain pipe egg container: made of aluminium, 12”in dia & 12”in height  Each hatchery can hold 6 lakhs of egg

HANGING DIP NET HATCHERY
 Devised by FAO  The componets of this hatchery: 1.spawning tank (2.36mx3.23mx0.9 m) 2.breeding tank ( 1.2mx0.7mx1.06m) 3.hatching tanks (3.3mx1.0mx1.0m)  All tanks are provided with inlet and outlet  There is provision or overhead sprayers and aircoolers  Hanging dip net is a barrel shaped having steel rings of 65cm and 45cm at the top and bottom  There is a 50 mm spray head fitted at the bottom of each net

PLASTIC BUCKET HATCHERY
 This hatchery comprises of two components: 1)inner component 2)outer component  Inner component:  The outer containoe is plastic with perforated aluminum egg vessel  Outer is the galvanized iron sheet spawnery  Plastic bucket cylindrical in shape and has 2 outlet in the top and 2 inlet in the bottom  47cm height and 30cm dia.  Water holding capacity is 45L

LDPE D 85 MODEL
• Designed by C.I.F.E by Dr. Dwivedi is a portable or rigid type indoor system • Higher version of vertical jar hatchery • Hatchery units made of LDPE • Major component: • I)Breeding cum spawnery 2)hatching unit 3)air compressor with distribution system

CIFE D-81 Model

BREEDING UNIT

The breeding unit comprises of 1) Overhead tank 2) Cooling tower 3)1/2 or1 HP water pump 4)Two large portable plastics pools of 0.9 to 2.5m dia. And 0.6 to 1.2m height and 2000 to 3000L capacity ▫ It can be either rectangular or circular in shape with water sprayer

HATCHING UNIT • It consist of 6/12/24/48 conical bottom hatchery jars • Capacity is 40L • Water inlet is from the bottom • There is a provision of egg container and aeration • Total capacity of egg container is 20L • And it can hold 8 to 10 lakhs of egg • The outlet is at the top portion of jar

• We can stock 20 million spawn if aeration is provided • It is a fiber glass or copper container of 6 m dia. And 1m height • Incubation in this hatchery is 13 to 14hr. • A definite speed of water is maintained
SPAWNERY

FRP/ metallic container 6 feet in dia & 1 m inheight Hapa is fixed to the frame

MERITS •Adaptable to large scale production not very large scale •Water quality can be maintained •Distribution of oxygen is effective •Additional aeration is possible •Easy to repair without dismantling •Not very expensive to install

DEMERITS •Can not lead to large scale production •Needs vigil and care to operate

CHINESE CIRCULAR HATCHERY
• It is the most popular type of hatchery • It comprises of different components 1)over head tank 2)spawning pool 3)incubation tanks 4)spawn collection tank Overhead tank • Made of R.C.C. • Capacity is 10000 to 15000L • It must be kept at a height

Spawning pool
• The dia is 5 to 8m • Bottom is slope towards the center where the outlet is located • This outlet leads to egg collection chamber if any or goes to the incubation tank directly • Inlet pipes are fitted on the wall of the tank at an angle of 60 the pipe dia-2 to 3 inch. • There are provision of water showers

• At a time 150 to 200 kg male or femal can be introduced • Can get 9 to 12 million eggs in one operation • Water current is kept at 0.2 to 0.5m/sec Incubation pools • It comprises of two tanks • Outer tank(3 to 6 m dia.) • Inner tank (0.8 to 1.5m dia)

• Water holding capacity is 9 to 12 cubic meter • Circular wall separates the outer wall to inner wall and is fitted with fine mesh • Center of inner pipe has outlet pipe • Inlet pipes are located in the bottom • These are duck mouthed and fitted at an angle of 45 degree • Pool can hold 7 lakh egg /m3

Speed • 0.4 to 0.5m/sec in 12hr • 0.1 to 0.2m/sec in 6 hr • Increased to 0.3 to 0.4 and continued • From the incubation pool there is a pipe leading to spawn collection tank Spawn collection tank • It is a rectangular tank

• It is devised for small scale farmer • It is a low cost hatchery • It is made of galvanized iron of 80cm dia and 60 cm height • Water holding capacity-300L • The hatchery unit comprises of 2 chambers 1. Outer is larger and there is a provision of 8 inlet jets in the bottom made of cupper of 0.8cm dia at 60 degree

PORTABLE CIRCULAR HATCHERY

• At the bottom there is a outlet of 3cm which is pluggable 2. Inner chamber is 28cm in dia and is separated by iron mesh grill guarded by monofilament cloth of 40-60 meshes • There is a PVC pipe in the middle acting as overflow pipe • Entire unit suppoted by 2.5cm iron frame stand Rate of flow • 8-10L/min • 50l of egg can be harvested at the same time

AN AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR EGG COLLECTION, HATCHING, AND TRANSFER OF LARVAE IN A FW FINFISH HATCHERY
(LIU ET AL., 2000)

• The system consists of a spawning tank, a filter, an incubation tank, hatching nets, and larviculture ponds. • Species breed using this system grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), bighead carp (Aristichtys nobilis), and black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus).

Incubation tank and hatching nets
• Incubation tank : rectangular,10m×2.6m×0.9 m and made of concrete. • The bottom of this tank is 1 m deeper into the ground than the bottom of the spawning tank. • A tube from the spawning tank runs through the center of the incubation tank at the bottom with 20 manifolds branching out sideways. • Each manifold has pipes pointed upward which connect to a round hatching net, mesh size 1.0 mm, diameter 67 cm and 50 cm depth • In addition, underneath the inlet port of each hatching net, an aeration hole was created to facilitate flow of air

Schematic diagram of the automated system for egg collection, hatching and larval transfer for some freshwater cultured finfish

HATCHING NET

Biological filter
• A filter3.4×2.1×1.4 m built of concrete was constructed outside and above the spawning tank. • It consists of a simple pilot filter from the bottom to the top, the filter is filled with large stones, small stones, pebbles and brush. and a sedimentation pool. • Water was recirculated from the incubation tank through the biofilter to the spawning tank

Comparison with traditional stripping method

CATFISH HATCHERIES

MAGUR HATCHERY
FLOW THROUGH HATCHERY

(Sarangi, N. et al.,

• • •

2004) Row of small plastic tubs of 12 cm diameter, 6 cm height placed on a cement platform and are provided with flow through water system. Capacity/tub – 5000 eggs Each tub is having outlet(2cm) at a height of about 4 cm water supply – OHT- Cooling tower - common pipe to all the tubs with individual control tabs

LARGE SCALE HATCHING,

• an improvised hatchery system • circular tank of 2 m diameter • inlets at a height of 15 cm at an angle of 45 degree. • A feeble inflow of water is maintained • 1 lakh eggs can be accommodated. • Survival rate 60-80% Recently FRP hatchery has been developed by CIFA

NURSERY • Indoor rearing- survival • Small rectangular/circular- tanks/tubs (1m x 0.5m x 0.25m) • Stocking density-2,000-3,000 nos/m3 • Water depth -10-15 cms • Water exchange- 60-80% (twice a day)

REARING • Indoor- shadow area • Cement tanks/FRP tanks:10-20 m2 , depth 2530 cms • Stocking density: 200-300 fry/m2 • Shading- Eichornia, pipes

MAHSEER HATCHERY

Mahseer hatcheries in India

Basavaraja, N. (2007)

TROUGHS

• various shapes and sizes-rectangular troughs (220 x 50 x 40 cm / 220 x 60 x 50 cm). • can be made from cement concrete/ aluminium/flat galvanised iron sheets /fiberglass. • Arrangement -in a series-water flows. • separate inlet and outlet mechanism for water. • five hatching trays can hold 20,000-25,000 fertilised eggs.

TRAYS • The shape and size of the hatchery trays – accordance with troughs • The trays are made of fiberglass / wooden frame • The bottom of tray - fitted with the synthetic netting cloth (mesh size 2 mm) • Arrangement – series- water flow • Tray (56 x 56 x 10 cm) -capacity to hold 5,0006,000 fertilised eggs

NURSERY TANKS

• These tanks may vary in shape and size -shallow tanks. rectangular tanks (2.0 x 0.5 x 0.6 m / 2.0 x 0.75 x 0.60 m) • Circular tanks (diameter 2.2 m x 0.75 m or 0.60 m) preferably of cement/ fibreglass • A water flow rate 3-4 litres/minute • Stocking density: 2500-3000 nos./m3

REARING PONDS/TANKS • Tanks -(10.0 x 4.0 x 1.0 m) • Construction- stone pitching/cement /fiberglass • Water flow rate 4-6 liter/min. • stocking density - 1,000 nos./ m2.

NRCCWF ‘FLOWTHROUGH’ HATCHERY, BHIMTAL Raina etal., 1999

:

• OHT capacity- 1000 l, at a height of 5m
• Hatchery tanks :GI/FRP, showers for aeration. 200*60*30 cm,

• Wooden Hatching trays- 50*30*10 cm with 1mm synthetic netting cloth. • 5 trays can be kept in trough

• Nursery tank: FRP/PVC, 120*70*40cm, capacity- 10,000 to 15,000 swim-up fry, provided with shower • Rearing tank : GI/FRP , 2m2, 0.45m depth, provided with showers, capacity- 5000- 10,000 fry • capacity to hold-0.25-0.3 million fertilized eggs & can raise 0.2-0.25 million fry.

TATA POWER COMPANY’S HATCHERY, LONAVLA:
(Kulkarni and Ogale, 1995)

• Capacity of overhead tank-10,000 l.
• • • • Size of wooden hatchery trays-56*56*10cm. Capacity of tray-30000 eggs. Rectangular cement tank -2.5*1.2*0.75m. Nursery : FRP/PVC, capacity :10000-15000 fry. • Water requirement : 11520l/8 trays • Rearing tank: FRP, area- 2m2, depth- 0.45 m capacity- 5,000-10,000 fry.

TROUT HATCHERY

Trout hatcheries in India
Basavaraja, N. (2007)

Hatchery Facilities: • Brood stock maintenance tank • Artificial fertilization requirements Incubation devices (Thomas, P.C., 2003) 1. Flat troughs and trays 2. Vertical flow incubators, 3. Vibert box 4. Jar incubators

1.FLAT TROUGHS AND TRAYS
• Trays: made of perforated stainless steel/aluminium /zinc/plastic. (50×50 cm- 10,000 eggs), mesh size 1.5 -2.5 mm dia • Trough can be A. Long trough: RCC/wood/zinc/aluminium/steel, (2-3 m)x (0.5 -0.8m) x (0.2-0.35m), painted dark from inside B. Californian type : zinc/wood/plastic, 0.5x0.2x 1.5m / 1x1.5x0.25m, capacity- ½ trays ,arranged in series • Continues flow of water is maintained 0.2-0.3 litre/minute/1000 eggs

Eggs mixed with milt

Water hardening of eggs

Loading of eggs in trays

2.VIBERT SYSTEM • Cage- vibert box with holes (70×63×94mm), 45g, • Made of rigid transparent plastic material, • Capacity: 800-1000 eggs • River bed with hens egg size pebbles • water flow

3.JAR SYSTEM Jar: cylindro conical • 35cm dia, • 80 cm height and • 70 litre capacity are used (8,000-9,000 eggs/litre) • Inlet at narrow end • Narrow part has layer of pebbles 4.VERTICAL FLOW INCUBATORS Made of plastic Shell: (80 cm height, 62 cm wide) tray :external water holding basket (53x62x9cm) egg containg tray (40×35×5cm) Each shell holds 8 trays Laribal hatchery, Kashmir • Drum- filter

NURSERY AND REARING
• Nursery-30-45 days they are reared in hatching troughs • Circular and rectangular tanks- 2-3 meters in length, 0.5 to 0.8 meter in width and 0.2 to 0.35 m depth • Stocking density 10,000 to 30,000 per square meter

• Rearing - 3×1×0.75 to 10×1×0.75m • Stocking density 50100 nos. of swim up fry per sq. meter. • Raceways • Automated feeding system • High density rearing • Water reuse system

Fingerlings on a hand net

Water inlet pipe

Circular tanks

Flat troughs

Inlet of the raceways

Sampling of fingerlings

Outlet of raceway with screens

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

components:
• • • • • • Water intake system and treatment Brood stock unit Spawning unit Live feed unit Larval unit Waste water treatment

GENERAL HATCHERY LAYOUT

WATER INTAKE SYSTEM

Water Intake System

Water intake direct from sea

Water storage

Open reservoir

TREATMENT
• • • • • Sedimentation Sand filtration Cartridge filter UV treatment Chlorination

Water disinfection Equipments
Cartridge filter Sand filter

UV lamp

BROODSTOCK HOLDING UNIT
• Indoor/outdoor • They are usually located close to the hatchery. • The most common design being rectangular earthen ponds or round concrete tanks between 50 and 200 m3, but which can go up to 500 m3. • Floating Cage:50 - 200 m2( 5 x 5 x 2 m or 10 x 10 x 2 m) stocking density @ 2 kg/m3- rearing brood stock e.g. seabass • Tank: 12 x 6 x 2 m (gross capacity 100 t) – Flow through-Aeration; stocking density 1 kg/m3 • Cobia- submerged cage

SPAWNING UNIT
• Round/ square (with rounded corners) tanks of 4-20 m3 capacity, concrete/FRP/ PVC-lined. • Tank depth should be limited to 1.5 m as maximum • Windows/Air-extractors for controlled light conditions, to renew the air and reduce humidity inside the spawning unit. • floor tiled or painted with epoxy coatings.

• drainage system: screened channels under the floor. (slope of at least 2%).
• Thermal insulation of walls and roof to save on heating costs

• A framework of zinccoated steel beams suspended over the tanks to allow the installation of the main support systems such as heating, water supply and recirculation, light and electric systems, air and emergency oxygen supplies.

SUPPORTING SYSTEMS

Water circuit
• heated /cooled as per requirement • When the breeding cycle is to be manipulated, a water recirculation system is introduced to reduce heating and cooling costs. Recycling systems require a biofilter • PVC pipes are used to supply and drain water • The water circuit design with the minimum number of corners to avoid pressure losses and the appearance of dead circulation points where sediments and bacteria could accumulate.

• components assembled by means of fast joints and bolted flanges to facilitate dismantling for cleaning and service operations. • According to the water supply system, i.e. by gravity or by pumping, PVC pipes to stand different water pressure levels. • independent inlet placed on the tank rim; a ball valve should be provided to adjust its flow according to requirements. • Tap water should be easily at hand with a few delivery points and a washbasin for cleaning routines.

Lights • Light intensity :500-1 000 lux at the water surface by halogen lamp placed over each tank. • Lamps: timer/dimmer controlled twilight effect. Large windows should be avoided to prevent direct sunlight falling on the tanks. Aeration system • Air supply is assured by a few coarse diffusers placed on the tank bottom and should be regulated to keep eggs suspended in the water mass. • Plastic needle valves for aquarium or metal clamps (much more expensive) can be used to regulate air flow.

Overwintering facilities • In locations with mild winter conditions. • protected by a light cover (eg. greenhouse), • deepened (3 to 4 m) • sheltered from the prevailing winds by means of windscreens, • supplied with heated water. • indoor facilities in case the above proves expensive

Livefood unit

Live Feed culturing

(Moretti et al,2005)

• microalgae -stock room -inoculate room; -live food upto 500 L culture room -outdoor large scale culture area • zooplankton -inoculation room -intensive culture room • Glass ware washing • Sterilization room; • Artemia -cysts decapsulating area -Artemia incubation and enrichment room

Microalgae

The following consecutive stages might be utilized: test tubes, 2 l flasks, 5 and 20 l carboys, 160 l cylinders, 500 l indoor tanks, 5,000 l to 25,000 l outdoor tanks

Batch Culture System

Figure : Carboy culture apparatus (Fox, 1983).

Fig: Diagram of a continuous culture apparatus : (1) enriched seawater medium reservoir (200 l); (2) peristaltic pump; (3) resistance sensing relay (50 - 5000 ohm); (4) light-dependent resistor (ORP 12); (5) cartridge filter (0.45 mm); (6) culture vessel (40 l); (7) six 80 W fluorescent tubes (Laing, 1991)

Two basic designs of PE bags of different capacities are utilised: a smaller single or double suspended bag (capacity 50 to 150l), and a larger one standing inside a wire mesh cylinder (up to 400l). In both cases, hot extruded tubular PE of 0.2 to 0.3 mm thickness is employed. . The bottom of the bag is sealed either by hot welding, or in the case of the U-shaped double bags just by knotting

Rotifer
• tanks are round with a conical bottom with a capacity ranging between 1 and 4 m3. •Their inner surface can be white gel-coated to improve cleaning. • An adequate drain with a valve at the cone tip for harvesting operations. •placed in double rows separated by a wooden or metal walkway for easy monitoring

• A heated seawater circuit is necessary, with a temperature control to adjust the temperature in a very short time. • temperature maintained with electrical heaters made of titanium or with coiled tubing all around the tank.. • Aeration in each tank is fitted with air stones placed at about 15 cm from the bottom to avoid stirring the sediment. • At least 5 air diffusers can be used in a 2 m3 tank: one at the centre, and the other four placed along the wall. • Around 2-3 m3/h of air flow per m3 of culture volume is required.

Artemia
• Basic round tank with conical bottom offers near ideal conditions in respect of water circulation, aeration and harvesting. • Tank capacity : lower (1 to 2 m3) than rotifer tank, for greater production flexibility. • The tank inner surface painted white (gel-coated) to ensure a better light diffusion (important in the first hours of cyst incubation) and proper cleaning. • A transparent window near the cone tip to attract nauplii at harvest time by means of a light source. • A drain with a valve at the cone tip is used for harvesting. • tanks are positioned along the walls to leave enough free space at the centre of the room for harvesting operations.

• A lamp is installed in each tank, made with 1 or 2 fluorescent tubes delivering 2 000 lux • an open-ended PVC pipe (¾") placed in each tank near the bottom for strong aeration. A ball valve allows regulation of the air flow, which should be about 6-8 m3/h/ m3 of incubation volume. • A heated seawater circuit is necessary, with a temperature control to adjust the temperature in a very short time

LARVAL REARING UNIT

100-500l

Advanced water inlet for the larval rearing tank

Two different shapes of outlet screen for larval rearing tank

Stationary probe for O2 monitoring in the larval rearing tank

Artemia nauplii dispenser

Waste treatment
• SEDIMENTATION TANK • DRUM FILTER

CRUSTACEAN HATCHERY BIVALVE HATCHERY

•PRAWN HATCHERY •SHRIMP HATCHERY •CRAB HATCHERY

Layout of FW prawn Hatchery

Layout of sample prawn hatchery

WATER FILTRATION SYSTEMS

Broodstock unit
• • • • Rectangular ponds 0.2 – 1.6 ha Depth :0.75-1.2m (0.9m) Slope at bottom :1.2 for smaller pond/1.5 for larger pond • Free board : 0.6m • Bundh slope ( 3:1 I / 2:1 E )

Hatching unit

Tanks
A variety of tanks are required for hatchery operation and these are described below  Fibreglass : Ideal, but prohibitively expensive in some countries.  Ferrocement : Much cheaper than reinforced concrete andcan be cast into any desired shape; however, requires properly trained masons. Reinforced concrete: Very suitable, but also expensive.  Plastered brick: Easy to use, but prone to leakage without costly epoxy coating.  Plastic-lined wooden or bamboo tanks: The cheapest, but not very durable.

While constructing larval tanks :• avoid Cu/ Zn /oil/GI steel/ Bare concrete for construction • Concrete tanks with several coatings of epoxy paints can be used • Inner surface should be smooth • rounded at corners • Color: green/blue/black • Size :1-8m3 ( 2-5m3)

Larval rearing unit

Recirculation of water in these tanks can be by a shared filter or individual filter

BIOFILTER

Airlift system in filter

DRAINAGE SYSTEM

AERATION SYSTEM

PACKAGING OF SEED

SHRIMP HATCHERY
• Basically two types 1. Japanese/ Community culture system 2. Galveston System

Community culture system
• Hudinga (1942) • Spawning, hatching , larval rearing in single tank • 200 ton , cement tank • 1/m3 brooder in net cages Disadvantages  Lack of control over water quality  Bloom of undesired plankton species  Mass mortality  Wastage of feed

Galveston System
• Galveston Laboratory, USA by Cook & Murphy, 1966 • Separate tanks for  spawning ( small indoor plastic pools) ,  larval rearing ( large 2000l plastic pools @ 50 N/l ) and livefeed culture Water filteration through 60 µ mesh nylobolt cloth Aeration

Layout of Model Shrimp hatchery

MATURATION TANK

SPAWNING TANK
200mm

Hatching tank

Algal culture

Nutrient medium

Starting of culture

Contd..

Culture in progress

Culture in carbuoys

Contd..

Indoor culture

Outdoor culture

Contd..

During decapsulation process

Hatched artemia

Maturation Division

Checking of maturity stage

Disinfecting the brooders

Hatching section

Ready for transferring of PL

Indoor larval rearing unit

Larval culture tanks

PL 15

Packaging

Cooling of water

Packaging of PL

Transportation

Brood stocking rearing
• Broodstock are raised in pond or collected from the natural ground. • Broodstock pond size- 0.1 to 0.4ha. • Central portion of pond should keep shallow for barrowing and as feeding place(S. serrata). • Fencing of 1 mt. height made of split bamboo matting/GI chicken wire mesh/nylon netting should provide to prevent the escape of crawling crab. • Shelters(earthen pipes/PVC pipe/wornout tyres) should provide at the bottom to prevent fighting and cannibalism.

Maturation Tank
• Large tanks : > 10m3 , • shallow :80-100cm • Essentials Shelters Low light condition Fencing Sandy bottom

Brood stock tank

Incubation & Hatching Unit
• Incubation tank Small, 100-500l • Hatching tank 400-1000l

Larval rearing unit
• Various shapes : round with conical bottom, hemispherical parabolic, &rectangular • Colored black • No direct sunlight • Light 1000-6000 lux • Well ventilated • Tanks should be covered • Insulation / heaters round,

Nursery
Megalopa are nursed in concrete tanks or in net cages set in brackishwater ponds. Black nets are placed at the bottom as substrates and some are suspended in the water column. About 30-50% of the volume of the rearing water (26-30 ppt) is replaced daily during the first 5 days and every two days thereafter.

Site selection
Things to be considered • Government regulations • Physiological requirements • Avoid areas with  very low temperature Heavy rainfall High salinity fluctuation Contamination with pollutants & pesticides

Layout of a bivalve hatchery varies from: • site to site, • with species produced, • geographic location, • funds available, • the target production • species and personal preferences

There are two basic parts to a bivalve hatchery 1. the water system and 2. the physical plant.

Sea Water System
• Hatchery near to shore to avoid pumping of water to long distance- cost • Pumping of water should be done from deeper water in case of Temperate areas Areas with high rainfall Surface blooms of toxic algae contamination

PLANT

Layout of bivalve hatchery

AC-Algal culture; TR-stock culture of algae; SCR- Algal scaling up; AR sterilization room; BC-Brood stock holding/spawning area; SP- Spawning plate; LC-Larval rearing tanks; JC- Juvenile culture; QC-quarantine room; ETtreatment tanks ;O-office; DL- Dry laboratory; MR – Machinery room; GPAGeneral purpose area

LARGE SCALE CULTURE UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS

BROODSTOCK CONDITIONING UNIT

Spawning Unit

SPAWNING OF DIOCEOUS BIVALVES

FLOWTHROUGH SYSTEMS FOR LARVAL CULTURE

SPAT GROWING TECHNIQUES
1. Growing attached spat 2. Growing unattached spat

GROWING OF ATTACHED SPAT

GROWING UNATTACHED SPAT

GRADING OF SPAT

NURSERY OF SPAT

Constraints
• Huge initial investment • Brooder development constrains- Technology, time (e.g. milk fish) • Nursery rearing constrains- stocking density, survival (Michael et al., 2005) • Dependence on natural feed • Lack of input from institutions & research centers on design technologies

Future perspectives
• • • • • • Infrastructure development Improvement of Hatchery design Generation of hatchery design Water reuse – technology Intensive nursery practices Automated systems

Questions
• Describe the various developments in carp hatcheries. • What are the advantages of eco hatchery ? • Describe various types of incubation devices used in a trout hatchery. • What are the differences in designs of freshwater & marine fin fish hatchery? • Describe various components of water intake system in a shrimp hatchery.

• Write about brood stock rearing /maintenance, Spawning system and Egg incubation system in marine finfish hatchery? • Write about the nursery rearing system in marine finfish hatchery? • Write about the development and status of Crustacean hatchery in India? • Write in detail about the various components of crustacean hatchery? • Write in detail about the biosecurity considerations, constrains and future perspectives in crustacean hatchery? • Write in detail about the various components of bivalve hatchery?

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