What is Microbiology?
Micro - too small to be seen with the naked eye  Bio - life  ology - study of

What is Microbiology?
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Microbiology is the Science that studies Microorganisms. Microorganisms, roughly, are those living things that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Microorganisms cannot be distinguished Phylogenetically from ―Macroorganisms‖ For example, many fungi are microorganisms, as well as all bacteria, all viruses, and most protists. Microbiology is more a collection of techniques: Aseptic technique Pure culture technique Microscopic observation of whole organisms A microbiologist usually first isolates a specific microorganism from a population and then cultures it.

Microbiology b. >3 billion BC
―It is generally believed that microorganisms have existed on earth for several billion years, and over time, plants and animals have evolved from microorganisms.‖

and genetics.‖ . Above is a fossil cyanobacterium that is 950 million years old.  ―Microorganisms are… very diverse in all their aspects: appearance. physiology. They are far more diverse [in these terms] than plants and animals. metabolism.

Abedon (2000s) = not one heck of a lot….Brief History Microbiology          Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1670s) = microscopy Edward Jenner (1796) = vaccination against smallpox Ignaz Semmelweis (1840s) = hand washing before surgery Louis Pasteur (1860s) = repudiation spontaneous generation Joseph Lister (1860) = father aseptic surgery Robert Koch (1870s) = Koch’s postulates Dmitri Iwanowski (1990s) = Inference of viruses Alexander Fleming (1920s) = Penicillin Stephen T. .

―cells‖  Cell Theory .all living things are made up of cells .History of the Study of Microorganisms  1665 Robert Hooke  ―little boxes‖ .

Hooke’s Microscope .

Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1674 .1st person to actually see living microorganisms “wee animalcules” .

Leeuwenhoek’s Microscope RBCs .

manure and decaying  flesh .moist soil  flies and maggots .Spontaneous Generation  Theory that life just ―spontaneously‖ developed from non-living matter Example:  toads. snakes and mice .

Origin of Microbes: Spontaneous Generation Myths  Snakes from horse hairs in stagnant water    Mice from grain and cheese wrapped in a sweater Maggots from rotting meat Fleas from hair    Flies from fresh and rotting fruit Mosquitoes from stagnant pondwater Eels from slimy mud at the bottom of the ocean    Locusts from green leaves Raccoons from hollow tree trunks Termites are generated from rotting wood .

Experiments to disprove Spontaneous Generation  Francesco Redi Rudolph Virchow 1668 1858   Theory of Biogenesis ○ Cells can only arise from preexisting cells  Louis Pasteur 1861 .

Origin of Microbes: Redi’s Experiment .

Pastuer (1861) Refuted Spontaneous Generation  Pasteur filtered air through cotton plug showing that filterable particles cause contamination of sterile broths. Swan-necked flask experiments  .

Pasteur designed special “swan-necked flasks” with a boiled meat infusion Shape of flask allowed air in (vital force) but trapped dust particles which may contain microbes .

Origin of Microbes: Pasteur’s SwanNecked Flasks .

Broth turbidity indicates bacterial growth. Bacteria. fungal spores. Contamination of culture Heat to sterilize (doesn’t always work). and dust adhere to glass. .Origin of Microbes: Pasteur’s SwanNecked Flasks Remains sterile.

were caused by:   demons  witchcraft  bad luck  the wrath of God  curses  evil spirits . they thought.Germ Theory of Disease Hard for people to believe that diseases were caused by tiny invisible ―wee animalcules‖  Diseases.

1st to prove that bacteria actually caused diseases 1876  Microbial Etiology of Infectious Disease   etiology .Robert Koch .the cause of a disease  Established ―scientific rules‖ to show a cause and effect relationship between a microbe and a disease  Koch’s Postulates .

The same organisms must be found in all cases of a given disease.  2. The organism must be isolated and grown in pure culture.  3. The original organism must again be isolated from the experimentally infected animal.Koch’s Postulates 1. The isolated organism must reproduce the same disease when inoculated into a healthy susceptible animal.  4.  .


Syphilis .Exceptions to Koch’s Postulates 1. Some organisms have never been grown in pure culture on artificial media Treponema pallidum .

Exceptions to Koch’s Postulates Mycobacterium leprae Leprosy Never been grown in pure culture on artificial media .

it is not morally acceptable to inoculate a deadly pathogen into a ―human guinea pig‖  HIV .Exceptions to Koch’s Postulates  In exclusively human diseases.

Koch established the Microbial Etiology of 3 important diseases of his day    1. Tuberculosis (pulmonary infection)  Mycobacterium tuberculosis 3. Cholera (fecal-oral disease)  Vibrio cholerae 2. Anthrax (sheep and cattle)  Bacillus anthracis .

handicrafts from the Middle East made from animal products . goats  Humans ○ Handle hides.Anthrax  Bacillus anthracis  Gram (+). non-motile. cattle. goat hair. aerobic. spore forming rod  Streptobacilli with central spores  Livestock ○ Sheep. wool.

3 Forms of Human Anthrax  1. Cutaneous Anthrax  Enters thru cut or abrasion  Results in painless ulcer (1-3 cm) with black (necrotic) center  About 20% mortality rate in untreated cases .

vomiting blood. severe diarrhea  25% to 60% mortality rate . 2. Gastrointestinal Anthrax  Contaminated meat  Abdominal pain. fever.

 3. Inhalation Anthrax  Initial symptoms     resemble common cold Progress to severe breathing problems and shock Usually results in death 1-2 days after onset of acute symptoms Mortality rate 99% in untreated cases Treatment usually not effective after symptoms are present .

mail. bombs. rockets. crop dusters ? No cloud or color No smell No taste Antibiotics – only effective if administered early (within 24 –48 hours) .Anthrax as a Biological Weapon         Deadly if not treated early Spores can be produced in large quantities using basic knowledge of biology Spores may remain viable for years (60 at least) Spores can be spread  Missiles.

arsenic-based chemical to treat Syphilis ○ ―salvation‖ from Syphilis .Golden Age of Microbiology 1914  Pasteur  Pasteurization  Fermentation  1857 - Joseph Lister  Phenol to treat surgical wounds – 1st attempt to control infections caused by microoganisms  First one to use antiseptics    Robert Koch  Koch’s Postulates Edward Jenner  Small pox vaccination Paul Erlich  1st synthetic drug used to treat infections  Salvarsan .

Edward Jenner – Smallpox Vaccine (1796) .

Yeasts and Molds  Fungi     Bacteriology Protozoology Phycology Parasitology Mycology Virology   6.Microbes . Bacteria 2. Viruses Microorganisms . Algae 4. Protozoans 3.Germs . Parasites 5.Organisms included in the study of Microbiology       1.

a.. domain Archaea  Single-celled members of domain Eukarya.k. eubacteria (―true‖ bacteria) • a.a..k. domain Bacteria  Archaeabacteria • a..a. • Protozoa • Microscopic Algae • Microscopic Fungi  Viruses and other Agents .Types of Microorganisms  Bacteria • a.k.

Relationship of Microbes .

Comparing Domains

Scale of Microbes

Scale of Microbes

5 Kingdoms of Living Organisms
1. Animalia  2. Plantae  3. Fungi  4. Protista  5. Monera - Bacteria and Cyanobacteria

Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic

 Prokaryotes lack a true nucleus and other membrane-bound structure in cells such as the ER and mitochondrion. and membranebound. with chromosomes and a double membrane. . Eukaryotes have a true nucleus. cellular structures.

single(circular) Mitotic division.Absent Chromosome.Primitive type Nuclear membrane.1 The differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Table 1.70 S Lysosome. Size. Prokaryotes 1.Absent Nucleolus. Nucleus.Absent Dioxyribonucleoprotein.Absent 3. Cytoplasm Mitochondria-Absent Golgi bodies.Absent Endoplasmic reticulum-Absent Ribosome.Absent Eukaryotes Greater than 5 Well developed Present Present Present One or more (linear) Present Present Present Present 80 S Present .Less than 5 micron micron 2.

g.Chemical Composition Sterols in plasma membrane-Absent Cell wall complex. peptidoglycan -Present Muramic acid. membrane (mesosomes) 6. . blue green algae protzoa Present Simplepeptidoglycan -Absent Absent Mitochondria Algae. E.4.. fungi.Present 5. Other Respiration is part of plasma. Bacteria.

animal decomposers. photoheterotrophs. chemoautotrophs. cyanobacteria  Types: prokaryotes. Grampositive. cell walls. Gram-negative.Types: Bacteria Description: eubacteria. unicellular  Nutrient Type: chemoheterotrophs. archaeabacteria. wet conditions. acid fast. absorbers. photoautotrophs  .

 . tuberculosis. chlamydia.Types: Bacteria Durable state: endospores (some)  Diseases: tetanus. etc. gonorrhea. botulism.. etc. etc..

Rod-Shaped Bacteria .

Spherical Bacteria .

Spiral-Shaped Bacteria Spirochete: Borrelia burgdorferi .

Binomial System of Taxonomic Classification Information usually given:  1. Identifies a habitat  3.Naming of Bacteria  Genus and species . Honors a scientist or researcher  . Describes an organism  2.

. by itself.. and ―the genus Escherichia‖  The genus name (Escherichia) is always capitalized  The species name (coli) is never capitalized  The species name is never used without the genus name (e. coli. E. is a mistake!)  . coli standing alone.Binomial Nomenclature (1/3) Examples: Escherichia coli.g. Escherichia spp.

Binomial Nomenclature (1/3) The genus name may be used without the species name (e. Escherichia coli..g. the genus name always comes first (e. not coli Escherichia)  .g. though when doing so it no longer actually describes a species)  When both genus and species names are present. Escherichia may stand alone..

E. coli standing alone in a manuscript is not acceptable unless you have already written Escherichia coli in the manuscript)  . it must be spelled out in its entirety (e.Binomial Nomenclature (2/3) Both the genus and species names are always italicized (or underlined)—always underline if writing binomials by hand  The first time a binomial is used in a work.g..

g. E. coli)  The species name (e. coli) is never abbreviated  ...g. E. for Escherichia) though this is done typically only when used in combination with the species name (e..Binomial Nomenclature (2/3) The next time a biniomial is used it may be abbreviated (e.g.

Enterococcus vs.Binomial Nomenclature (3/3) It is a good idea to abbreviate unambiguously if there is any potential for confusion (e. Escherichia)  These rules are to be followed when employing binomial nomenclature even in your speech.g. It is proper to refer to Escherichia coli as E.. coli or even as Escherichia.!  . but it is not proper to call it coli or E.C.

a kind of eubacteria)  Types: photosynthetic aquatic procaryotes. cyanobacteria are a kind of bacteria (more specifically. green lake scum.Types: Cyanobacteria Description: also called blue-green algae. cell walls  Nutrient Type: photoautotrophs  .

Durable state: ?  Diseases: none  .

green. red. both unicellular and multicellular types  Types: brown.Types: Algae Description: photosynthetic aquatic eukaryotes. dinoflagellates. cell walls. euglenoids  Nutrient Type: photoautotrophs  Durable state:?  . diatoms.

Dinophysis causes Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP). Diseases: Some poisonings associated with unicellular types: Alexandrium causes Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP). Pseudonitzschia multiseries causes Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) [some would describe some as protists] .


dry conditions. cell walls. molds (filamentous fungi)  Types: eucaryotes.Types: Fungi Description: yeasts (unicellular fungi). nutrient absorbers. ~100 human pathogens  Nutrient Type: chemoheterotrophs  . plant decomposers.

etc. ringworm (pictured). athlete's foot.  .Durable state: spores (not endospores)  Diseases: mycoses: candida. jock itch.

engulfers and absorbers  Nutrient Type: chemoheterotrophs  . roundworms (nematodes)  Types: metazoan (multicellular animal) parasites.Types: Helminths Description: Flatworms (platyhelminths).

etc.  . hook worm.Durable state:?  Diseases: trichinosis. tape worm (pictured are scolex-heads of).

flagellates. ciliates .Types: Protozoa (Protists)  Description: Unicellular and slime molds.

(shown are harmless--to us--protist components of pond water: Amoeba. giardiasis. & Stentor)  . engulfers and absorbers. Peranema. no cell wall. parasites (most not). wet conditions. etc. amoebic dysentery. ~30 human pathogens  Nutrient Type: chemoheterotrophs (some classifications include some photoautotrophs as well)  Durable state: cysts (some)  Diseases: malaria. Paramecium.Types: eucaryotes. Blepharisma.

obligate intracellular parasites  Nutrient Type: not applicable  Durable state: virion particles. chicken pox. flu. herpes. etc. HIV.  .Types: Viruses Description: Viruses are not cells but some viruses do have lipid envelopes  Types: acellular. some can encase in durable state of host  Diseases: common cold.


Other ―Agents‖ .

what comes to mind? Diseases  Infections  Epidemics  Food Spoilage  Only 1% of all known bacteria cause human diseases  About 4% of all known bacteria cause plant diseases  95% of known bacteria are non-pathogens  .Bacteria .

pickles. green olives  yogurt. soy sauce. Wine. Microbes produce various food products   cheese.Microbes Benefit Humans 1. Alcohol . bread  Beer.Bacteria are primary decomposers recycle nutrients back into the environment (sewage treatment plants)  2. vinegar. sauerkraut.

3. Microbes are used to produce Antibiotics  Penicillin Mold  Penicillium notatum   1928 Alexander Fleming .

but cannot synthesize  Example: E.blood clotting  Escherichia coli  Dr. coli  B vitamins .4. Escherich  Colon (intestine) . Bacteria synthesize chemicals that our body needs.for metabolism  Vitamin K .

5. Biochemistry and Metabolism Very simple structure  rapid rate of reproduction  provides ―instant‖ data  .

6. Microbial Antagonism  Our normal microbial flora prevents potential pathogens from gaining access to our body .

Insect Pest Control  Using bacteria to control the growth of insects Bacillus thuringiensis  caterpillars  bollworms  corn borers  .7.

8. Bioremediation Using microbes to clean up pollutants and toxic wastes  Exxon Valdez .1989   2 Genera  Pseudomonas sp.  Bacillus sp. .

9. Recombinant DNA Technology Gene Therapy Genetic Engineering  Bacteria can be manipulated to produce enzymes and proteins they normally would not produce  Insulin  Human Growth Hormone  Interferon .

10. Microbes form the basis of the food chain  Marine and fresh water microorganisms .

Microbes do benefit us. but they are also capable of causing many diseases         Pneumonia Whooping Cough Botulism Typhoid Fever Measles Cholera Scarlet Fever Mumps Syphilis Gonorrhea Herpes 1 Chlamydia Tuberculosis Herpes 2 Meningitis Tetanus RMSV Strep Throat Lyme Disease AIDS Black Plague Diarrhea Gangrene .

.)  Microbes serve as emdosymbionts (e. chloroplasts and mitochondria)  . e.g.. especially aquatic ecosystems  Microbes are fixers—they make nutrients available from inorganic sources. the bacteria found in legume root nodules.g. nitrogen  Microbes are decomposers—they free up nutrients from no longer living sources  Microbes form symbioses (such as mycorrhizal fungi associated with plant roots—though somewhat macroscopic.Microbes & Ecology Microbes are produces—they provide energy to ecosystems. etc.

Mycorrhizal Fungi .

Microbes & Industry  Industry: Fermentation products (ethanol. cheese. Recombinant products (e. acetone. vaccines) Bioremediation  Biotech:  Environment: . halfsour pickles..g. etc.)  Food: Wine. yogurt. etc. human insulin. bread.

containers of specially-formulated wet and dry nutrients and a container of microbes cultured for their ability to digest oil and other petroleum derivatives.Each carton of Bugs+Plus provides easy to follow step-by-step instructions. .

most microorganisms.Microbes & Disease   Microbes both cause and prevent diseases Microbes produce antibiotics used to treat diseases   The single most important achievement of modern medicine is the ability to treat or prevent microbial disease Most of this course will consider the physiology of microbes and their role in disease    The Germ Theory of Disease = Microbes cause disease! (yes. do not cause diseases in any organism (including in humans) . including most bacteria. it wasn’t so long ago that humans didn’t know this) Nevertheless.

Impact of Infectious Disease    Infectious diseases are diseases caused by microbes 200. from infectious diseases ~20 million died from influenza (a disease caused by a virus) in 1918  ―New‖ infectious diseases still being discovered .000 deaths per year in U.S.


Normal Flora These are the ~harmless microorganisms found on your body.  .  Every part of your body that normally comes in contact with outside world (deep lungs and stomach are exceptions).

Brueghel: The Triumph of Death (1560) .

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