SOCIAL MOVEMENTS OCCUR when EVERYDAY PEOPLE ACT COLLECTIVELY at the RIGHT HISTORICAL MOMENT

January 2013

Some of the MAJOR EVENTS OF THE SOUTHERN FREEDOM MOVEMENT

Leading to:

CIVIL RIGHTS ACTS 1957 1960

1964

1965

AND Freedom from Fear and Freedom of Association
1954 Brown v Board

1960 Sit Ins
1955 Montgomery bus boycott
1961-3 Freedom Rides

1965 Selma

1964 COFO Freedom Summer

BUT NOT FREEDOM FROM POVERTY OR FREEDOM FROM DISCRIMINATION

Some key components of a successful social movement:

Get Ready to Be Ready
 Personal relationship and community building,  Building an infrastructure  Development of local leadership,  Creating coalitions,

 Identifying the problem and doing your homework,
 Strategic use of the arts,  Strategic use of nonviolent direct resistance,

 Learning how to deal with the contradictions within the movement,
and being in the right historical moment.

ORGANIZATIONS: --Build Infrastructure and Coalitions --Develop experienced activists
1910 --- NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

1942 --- CORE
Congress of Racial Equality

1957--- SCLC
Southern Christian Leadership Conference

1960 --- SNCC (snick)
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

1962-4 --- COFO
Council of Federated Organizations = NAACP, CORE, SCLC, SNCC

The Importance of Infrastructure
1837-1861-1890------ HBCU’s------------------------------------------------------------------------1919 Associated Negro Press--------------------------------------1964 1925 Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and Maids 1950 1932 - -------------Highlander--------------------------------------------A. Philip Randolph

Esau Jenkins Myles Horton

1908 Federal Council of Churches------------1950 National Council of Churches

1910 NAACP
NAACP local chapters Youth chapters

1957 SCLC
Churches

-------Local independent civil rights organizations------e.g., Women’s Political Council e.g., Montgomery Improvement Association e.g., Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights e.g., Nonviolent Action Group 1942 CORE Local chapters

C.T. Vivian

1960 SNCC
Black College Campuses Friends of SNCC

Jo Ann Robinson Fred Shuttlesworth

World War II
Gandhi

CIVIL RIGHTS ACTS 1957 1960 1964 1965

1910 NAACP
1908 Springfield IL Race riots

1957 SCLC King 1955 Montgomery bus boycott 1960 Sit Ins

The Importance of Historical Moment

1942 CORE

SNCC
1961-3 Freedom Rides

NAACP local chapters in S. bolstered by black WW II vets

1964 COFO Freedom Summer

LYNCHING
Panic of 1907

-----Cold War-----------------------------------------1955 Bandung Conference African anti-colonial movements

African Independence Timeline
18 16 14
year of independence

1960 Sit ins at HBCUs

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1951 1956 1957 1958 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1968 1974 1975 1976 1977 1980 1990 1993 number of countries achieving independence

Thurgood Marshall Roy Wilkins Walter White

World War II
Gandhi

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 1954 Brown v Board

1944 Smith v Allwright

1910 NAACP
1908 Springfield IL Race riots

1946 Morgan v Virginia 1960 Boyton v Virginia IN SOUTH: local chapters youth chapters

W. E. B. Dubois

1917 Silent March 1915 Protests against Birth of a Nation

CHARLES HOUSTON

1964 COFO Freedom Summer

MFDP
MEDGAR EVERS

-----Cold War-------- 1963 Kennedy shot
Ida B. Wells

LYNCHING
End of Reconstruction

Bandung Conference African anti-colonial movements

World War II
Gandhi

Southern Christian Leadership 1957 SCLC Council
King
SEPTIMA CLARK

JO ANN ROBINSON

1955 Montgomery bus boycott

Citizenship schools
1965 Selma 1964 COFO Freedom Summer
Freedom Schools

E.D. NIXON

KING AND BAYARD RUSTIN

ELLA BAKER

Lynching highpoint 1898 Plessy 1896

-----Cold War--------

1963 Kennedy shot African anti-colonial movements

World War II

Gandhi

Student Nonviolent Co-ordinating Committee
1965 Selma 1960 Sit Ins SNCC 1964 COFO Freedom Summer

DIANE NASH BOB MOSES

ELLA BAKER WAZIR PEACOCK

Voter Registration MFDP

Lynching highpoint 1898 Plessy 1896

-----Cold War--------

1963 Kennedy shot African anti-colonial movements

World War II
Gandhi

Congress of Racial Equality CORE

1947 Journey of Reconciliation 1961-3 Freedom Rides 1942 CORE
James Farmer

1964 COFO Freedom Summer
Community centers

Lynching Plessy 1896

-----Cold War--------

1963 Kennedy shot African anti-colonial movements

Washington, D.C.

Nashville

Birmingham Jackson Montgomery

1961 - The First Two Freedom Rides

New Orleans

World War II
Gandhi 1957

CIVIL RIGHTS ACTS 1960 1964 1965

1932 - ------------------------------------------------ Highlander

1910 NAACP
1908 Springfield IL Race riots 1944 Smith v Allwright

Interaction Among Organizations and Leaders

1957 SCLC Citizenship schools King 1955 Montgomery 1965 bus boycott Selma 1960 Sit Ins SNCC 1961 Freedom Rides 1964 COFO Freedom Summer
• Community centers • Freedom Schools • Voter Registration

1946 Morgan v VA 1960 Boynton v VA 1942 CORE NAACP local chapters in S. est by black WW II vets

Lynching

-----Cold War---------------

1963 Kennedy shot African/Asian anti-colonial movements

MISSISSIPPI FREEDOM SUMMER - 1964

?

Mississippi Literacy Test c. 1955

DOM VOTE

The creation of the MFDP

MFDP

State Convention in Jackson
68 Convention Delegates:
• 64 black • 4 white

5 Congressional Candidates 2 Senate Candidates Governor and Lt. Governor

DISTRICTS
Location of Mississippi projects

Atlantic City, New Jersey - August 22, 1964

Fannie Lou Hamer
(1917-1977)

Speaking at the Credentials Committee Hearing of the National Democratic Presidential Nominating Convention

Lyndon Johnson opposed the seating of the MFDP and spent political capital twisting arms. The Credentials Committee offered a “compromise:” MFDP to get two seats “at large” without voting power. MDP delegates to be seated, had to swear a loyalty oath to the Democratic Party. The MFDP voted against accepting the “compromise.” The Convention Delegates, under the impression that the MFDP approved the “compromise,” approved the Credentials Committee recommendations.

The Success of Freedom Summer
[T]he most significant thing that the movement gave to us was it removed people from fear. The freedom from fear of being dragged out of your house in the middle of the night for daring to want to be part of the mainstream, of daring to dream or want to participate, to want to have equal justice, that equal pay for equal work that my father used to talk about. The generations since the movement have not been taught to stay in their place or to understand that there’s a certain way to walk and stand and look at and relate to white people. For white and blacks, I think that is the most significant contribution it made to people in [Mississippi]. -- L.C. Dorsey

The Failure of Freedom Summer
What happened in 1964 symbolized the situation that we are in now. The National Democratic Party and the political leadership of that party at the time, said, okay, there’s room for these kind of people. And it was the professional people within our group who were asked to become part and did become part of the Democratic Party. On the other hand they said, there isn’t room for these people—grassroots people, the sharecroppers, the common workers, the day workers. There’s room for them as recipients of largesse— poverty programs and the like. There isn’t room for them as participants in power sharing. --Bob Moses

The Lesson of Freedom Summer Never again were we lulled into believing that our task was exposing injustices so that the ‘good’ people of American could eliminate them. We left Atlantic City with the knowledge that the movement had turned into something else. After Atlantic City, our struggle was not for civil rights, but for liberation.
-- Cleveland Sellers

THE SOUTHERN FREEDOM MOVEMENT 1954 Brown v Board 1960 Sit Ins
1955 Montgomery bus boycott

1961 Freedom Rides 1964 COFO Freedom Summer 1960 1964 1965

1965 Selma

Leading to:

CIVIL RIGHTS ACTS

1957

Freedom from Fear

Freedom of Associatio

BUT NOT Freedom from POVERTY

or Freedom from DISCRIMINAT

Vincent Harding
From Fundi: The Story of Ella Baker (1981)

“. . . Because this country has been changed [by the Southern Freedom Movement], we must change too
if we are going to continue to carry on the struggle . . . . You move into a struggle with certain kinds of visions and ideas and hopes. You transform the situation and then you can no longer go on with the same kinds of visions . . . because you have created a new situation yourselves. And if anybody has taught us how to be flexible and change and recreate our ideas and our thoughts as time has gone on, Ella Baker has done that.”

Ella Baker speaking at the MFDP State Convention
“Until the killing of black men, black mother’s sons Is as important as the killing of white men, white mother’s sons We who believe in freedom cannot rest until it comes”

San Francisco Freedom School Google: “sf freedom school”

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