TROUBLE SHOOTING IN INJECTION MOULDING PROCESS

Presented By N DURAI CIPET-Chennai

Short shots
A ‘short’ is an incomplete moulding. Moulding with narrow sections or ribs are vulnerable to short shots. Frequently the moulding is unfilled at the furthest point from the gate

Possible cause:
Insufficient Material injected into the cavity.

Check:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Short size Injection speed – may need to be increased Injection time – increase Changeover point from ‘Injection’ to ‘ Holding’ pressure Mould temperature - Increase

5. Check: 1. Mould .for wear damage or an obstruction. Switches set to bring on mould lock before injection . 2. 3.FLASH Flash is a thin film of unwanted material forming outside the designed cavity. 4. Mould clamping pressure – may be too low. Possible Cause: The mould is forced open due to the injection pressure being too high for the mould locking force or mould tool may be worn. . Change over point from injection to ‘hold-on’ pressure is too late. It is frequently found among the split line or around the undersized ejector pins. Injection pressures may be too high for mould lock.

Mould temperature – may need to be too low. 3. Material cushion or (pack) size. usually worse when furthest from gate.SINK MARKS Depressions on the surface often opposite ribs. Hold – on pressure –may be too low Hold – on pressure –check levels. 4. . Possible Cause: Material shrinkage or flowing back through the gate. Gate – may need to be increased. Check: 1. 2. bosses or change in section. 5.

Burn Marks Description Burn Marks show up on the finish molded parts as charred or dark plastic caused by trapped gas and is usually accompanied by a distinctive burnt smell. . Note: If this problem is allowed to continue without fixing the root cause it will very quickly cause damage to the molding surface.

-Reduce clamp force to improve venting. Note: This is always good practice to minimize wear on the mold and machine. -Improve venting at the burn location. -Decrease injection pressure. .Possible Solutions -Alter gate position and/or increase gate size. -Decrease injection speed. -Improve mold cavity venting. If it is possible to reduce the clamping force without causing flash then this should be done. Vents may become smaller because they are being crushed by the clamping force. -Decrease melt and/or mold temperature. -Decrease booster time.If possible it may be helpful to put an ejector pin or sleeve at the burnt area to allow the trapped gas to escape to atmosphere. . Vents may become smaller over time due to wear and they will need to be brought back to their original depth. Burn marks often occur on deep ribs that have no venting. -Check for heater malfunction.

6. 4. 7. Possible Solutions 1. 5.Brittleness Description Brittleness is a condition where the part cracks or breaks at a much lower stress level than would normally be expected based on the virgin material properties.Decrease injection pressure.Dry material. 2. . Refer to the drying instructions provided by the material supplier.Increase melt temperature.Decrease screw speed.Decrease amount of regrind use.Decrease back pressure.Check for material contamination. 3.

Check: 1. 4.DISTORTION Moulding is misshapen on ejection. . Mould temperature – may be too high. 3. Mould ejector system – uneven or forced ejection. Material temperature – may be too high. Cooling time – may be too short. 2. Possible cause: Moulding is ejected from the mould before properly solidified.

-Decrease injection temperature. -Dry material further. -Increase shot size. . -Increase injection pressure. 1. -Increase number and/or size of vents. Possible Solutions 2.Bubbles Description Bubbles are similar to blisters in that there is air entrapped in the molded part. -Decrease injection speed.

The gate – may need to alter or change its position .JETTING: A worm shaped area opposite and away from a gate with flow or weld lines at the furthest edges. the material then radiates from the gate but does not fuse with the worm. POSSIBLE CAUSE: Material enters the cavity too fast. which is now too cold CHECK: 1. This produces a ‘worm’ that travels across the cavity and ‘corrugates’ to produce a back filling. Injection Speed – this may be too high 2.

Crazing Description Cracking or Crazing is caused by high internal molded in stress or by an external force imposed upon the part. . -Increase cylinder temperature. Possible Solutions -Decrease injection pressure. They can also be caused by an incompatible external chemical being applied to the finished parts The cracks often don't appear until days or weeks after the parts have been molded. -Modify injection speed. -Increase mold temperature. -Dry material.Cracking. -Increase nozzle temperature. -If the material is amorphous then it may help to increase the mold and/or melt temperature. -If the material is partially crystalline then it may help to reduce the mold and/or melt temperature.

-Increase mold temperature. Check melt homogeneity and plasticizing performance. -Dry material. Incompatible resins or colorants may have been accidentally mixed causing this condition to be seen. -Insufficient Blending. -Check for material contamination.Delamination Description Delamination occurs when single surface layers start flaking off Possible Solutions -Adjust injection speed. . -Increase melt temperature.

-Move mold to smaller shot-size press. -Decrease back pressure. Possible Solutions -Check hopper and feed zone for contamination.Discoloration Description Discoloration is similar to burn marks or brown streaks but generally not as dark or severe. -Decrease nozzle temperature. -Purge heating cylinder. . -Provide additional vents in mold. however it can also appear as dark streaks throughout the part. -Shorten overall cycle. It may cause the part to be a darker shade than the virgin pellets and is often found nearest the gate area. -Decrease melt temperature.

-Increase mold temperature. Blush Marks are marks seen on the part due to flow of the molten plastic across the molding surface. Halo. Blush Marks Description Flow. -Increase cold slug area in size or number. -Increase melt temperature. Halo.Flow. -Increase size of sprue/runner/gate. -Increase nozzle temperature. Possible Solutions -Decrease injection speed. -Increase injection pressure. .

-Increase mold temperature. . They are normally found in thick sectioned parts caused by material being pulled away from the hot center section towards cold mold walls leaving a void in the center. -Increase injection pressure. -Increase size of gate. -Increase injection-hold. Possible Solutions -Clean vents. -Decrease injection speed. -Decrease melt temperature. -Dry material.Voids Description Voids are hollows created in the part. -Increase size of sprue and/or runners and/or gates. -Increase shot length.

stress. decrease to avoid over packing).Warping. -Relocate gates on or as near as possible to thick sections. stress. -Check mold knockout mechanism for proper design and operation. Part Distortion is shows up as parts being bowed. Part Distortion Description Warping. -Check gates for proper location and adequate size. -Equalize/balance mold temperature of both halves. . -Try increasing or decreasing injection pressure. bent or twisted beyond the normal specification outlined on the drawing. -Increase injection-hold. decrease to avoid over packing). Possible Solutions -Adjust melt Temperature (increase to relieve molded-in stress. -Increase mold cooling time. warped. decrease to avoid overpacking).

. They also occur as natural particles when a dry coloured moulding is cut. Screw speed – may be too high 4. Back pressure – may have to increase. Possible Cause Unplasticised (Unmelted) particles. Cycle time – may have to increase 3. Barrel temperature – may have to increase. 2.WINDOWS (FISH EYES) Transparent sections in random places sometimes the shape and size of granules in the direction of flow. Check: 1.

-Increase core temperature. -Decrease injection speed. -Decrease injection pressure.Sprue Sticking Description Sprue Sticking generally occurs in a cold runner mold when the sprue is staying in the mold. -Decrease booster time. -Open the gates. Possible Solutions -Check mold for undercuts and/or insufficient draft. -Decrease mold close time. -Decrease injection-hold. -Decrease nozzle temperature. -Ensure that the correct design of nozzle tip for the material is being used. .

pit marks and a rough finish. Tool – polish. Mould temperature – may need to be increased 4. Possible cause: Implementation on mould surface or inability of melt to replicate the mould contours. damage or rust marks. Check: 1. Injection pressure – cavity may be under – pressurised. Melt temperature – may need to increase. Injection speed – may be too low 3. 5. .POOR SURFACE FINISH This ranges from dull patches on a shiny finish to scratches. 2.

3. . 4. either in the form of bubbles. marks. Raw materials form manufacturers. Check: 1. crackers. Melt temperature – may be high Screw tip. 5. This can also cause damage to the mould and the screw. If raw material bins or hoppers have been left uncovered it is possible for foreign particles to enter the melt. marks or lumps. 2.CONTAMINATION Possible cause Foreign material has contaminated the melt. screw and nozzle for evidence of ‘Dead Spots’ due to local overheating. Material in hopper for contamination Hopper magnet for ferrous metals.

3.Splash marks Sometimes called ‘Scuffing’ or ‘Mica Marks’. like silver streaks. Acrylics. These areas or marks on the surface of the mouldings. 2. Material – that drying requirements have been met the moisture content of material in the hopper. ABS. Check: 1. Decompression setting – may be drawing hot air in from the nozzle. Melt temperature may be too high. etc. Most frequently found in hygroscopic materials such as Nylon. Possible Cause: They are usually caused by collapsed bubbles in the melt which have resulted from unescaped moisture. but can also be caused by overheating the melt. . in the direction of flow.

Flow marks Marks at or near the surface in the form of streaks in the direction of filling. 4. 3. Injection speed –may need to be increased. Mould temperature – may need to be increased. 2. Melt temperature – may need to be increased. Check: 1. Possible cause: Vague boundary lines between varying viscosities of material. Gate – type and position may need to be changed. .

6. Shot volume – may be too small. . often a line where cold fronts of material meet eg: After flowing round a core pin. 3. Mould temperature – may be too low. or along thicker sections. 2. Mould vents – may be blocked. 4. Injection speed too low.WELD LINE A surface mark. Possible Cause: Lack of fusion between cold fronts of material Check: 1. Hold –on pressure may be too low. 5. Barrel temperature – may be too low.

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