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Define of RCM
An analytical process to determine the appropriate failure management strategies to ensure safe operations and cost-wise readiness .
RCM analysis provides a structured framework for analyzing the functions and potential failures for a physical asset (such as an airplane, a manufacturing production line, etc.) with a focus on preserving system functions, rather than preserving equipment.
RCM is used to develop scheduled maintenance plans that will provide an acceptable level of operability, with an acceptable level of risk, in an efficient and cost-effective manner.

RCM ensures that:

The right maintenance is performed

At the right time

By the right people In the right way With the right training and tools

Benefits of RCM
If performed properly, RCM will:
Maximize safety and environmental health
Depending on objective:

Reduce overall maintenance cost Improve realized reliability/availability Provide a documentation trail for maintenance program changes

History of RCM
1965: Studies show scheduled overhaul of complex equipment has little or no effect on inservice reliability 1967-68: Airline and manufactures form Maintenance Steering Group (MSG) and produce MSG 1, Handbook: Maintenance Evaluation and Program Development. First applied to Boeing 747

1970: MSG handbook updated to MSG-2, Airline/ Manufactures Maintenance Program Planning Document. Applied to L-1011 and DC-10
1972: MSG-2 techniques applied to NAVAIR systems (P-3A, S-3A, and F-4J) 1975: NAVAIR applied Analytical Maintenance Program to Naval aircraft and engine programs, using MSG-2 type logic (NAVAIR 00-25-400) 1978: Department of Defense (DOD) sponsored DOD report AD-A066579, Reliability

Centered Maintenance by Nowlan and Heap - Updates MSG-2 approach

History of RCM
1983: MSG-3 issued. Used in design of Boeing 757 and 767 aircraft. Added emphasis on structural inspection programs. Similar to RCM, but lacked guidance on interval

1985: US Air Force (USAF) issued MIL-STD-1843, RCM Requirements for Aircraft, Engines and Equipment- Similar to MSG-3 (Cancelled without replacement in 1995, USAF Instructions contain current policy/guidance) 1986: NAVAIR issued MIL-STD-2173, "RCM Requirements for Naval Aircraft, Weapons Systems and Support Equipment". Superseded MIL-HDBK-266 & NAVAIR 00-25-400

1999: SOCIETY OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS (SAE) issued SAE JA1011, Evaluation Criteria for RCM Processes - establishes criteria for RCM processes (NAVAIR and Aladon/John Moubray major contributors)
2002: SAE issued SAE JA1012, A Guide to the RCM Standard - amplifies and clarifies key

concepts and terms from SAE JA1011

RCM seven questions

The RCM method has got seven basic questions that must be fulfilled, in

order to determine if it is a true RCM method. Thats due to the fact that the RCM method is a SAE standard (JA1011 12). The seven questions are listed below:
What are the functions and associated desired standards of performance of

the asset in its present operating context (functions)? In what ways can it fail to fulfill its functions (functional failures)? What causes each functional failure (failure modes)? What happens when each failure occurs (failure effects)? In what way does each failure matter (failure consequences)? What should be done to predict or prevent each failure (proactive tasks and task intervals)? What should be done if a suitable proactive task cannot be found (default actions)?

Set level of analyze When the decisions have been made that a RCM analysis should be done,

there are two questions that must be answered:

At what level should the RCM method be conducted? Should the whole plant be analyzed, if not, how are selections made? Create a component list After taken the decision of what to analyze, a component list should be done.

The list consists of basic aid to the RCM analysis. The basic aid can consist of information about the selected system, drawings, and pictures, schedules of pipes or electric components. The component list could both be formal or informal, depending on the situation.

Information about RCM 7 steps

The RCM method consists of seven basic questions
1. Function

The first step of the RCM analysis is to define the function of each chosen system.
2. Functional failure

A functional failure, occurs when the system is unable to fulfill its function, to an accept level of performance set by the user. This type of failure isnt only concerning the loss of a single function; its also loss of partial failures that could influence the production .

3. Failure mode

When all possible functional failures have been recognized, the analysis will proceed. The next step in the analyze process is to identify all kind of reasonable causes, that make a functional failure happen. This goes under the name failure mode. Under this step, all kinds of failure are represented, There are many types of failure modes, often from wear and fatigue.
4. Failure effects
Failure effects is the fourth step in the RCM process, and it describes what happens when each failure mode occur. This step is in close relationship with the next step and it should support the analyst to find out the following: In what way the failure is a threat to safety or the environment. In what way the production or operations are at risk. What physical damage is caused by the failure?

5. Failure consequences
In a maintenance organization, there can be over thousands of different failure modes.

Each of these failures effect the organization in the same way, but in each case, the affect is different. They may affect personal safety, environment, product quality, production and operation capabilities.
The RCM processes have four categories of failure consequences: Hidden failure consequences Safety and environmental consequences Operational consequences Non-operational consequences The RCM processes are using these four failure consequences to increase the safety in the organization. The failure consequence also helps the user to realize that there are several ways to managing failures.

A SIGNIFICANT FUNCTION Is one whose failure will have adverse effect on the end item with respect to:
Safety Environmental Health Operations Economics

The significant functions that were identified by the SF Selection Logic

undergo further analysis as they are subjected to the RCM Decision Logic. The RCM Decision Logic is used to determine what type of action would be appropriate to either eliminate or lessen the consequences of functional failures. Every function has one or more failure modes.

SF Selection Logic Diagram

6. The RCM task selection process

After finishing step five in the RCM process, its time for step six and the task selection. The RCM method uses a logic decision tree, in the form of a flow chart. For each step in the process, a logical question must be answered, yes or no. After ending the selection process, the RCM method will give some proposed maintenance tasks. After that, its up to the analyst to compare the result from the RCM task selection process with todays maintenance, failure and operational history. From that analysis, some new solutions of proactive maintenance tasks will come out.

7. Default actions
If no proactive maintenance task has been found, a default action must be done. The RCM method has got three major categories of default actions, these are:
Failure finding Redesign No scheduled maintenance

Will failure of the facility or equipment items have a direct and adverse effect on safety or critical mission operations? NO Is the item expendable? YES NO YES Can redesign solve the problem permanently and cost effectively? NO Is there a PT&I technology (e.g., vibration testing or thermograph) that will monitor condition and give sufficient warning (alert/alarm) of an impending failure? NO YES Is PT&I cost and priorityjustified? NO Is there an effective PM task that will minimize functional failures? NO YES YES YES


Construction/ Commissioning

Is establishing redundancy cost- and Priority-justified? NO YES

Accept risk

Install redundant units)

Define PM task and schedule

Define PT&I task and schedule

Figure 7-1

Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Decision Logic Tree

7.1 Failure finding

The failure finding tasks involve checking, whether something is still working. Failure finding applies only to hidden or not revealed failure systems.

7.2 Redesign
The redesign is what it sounds like, redesign of systems, reconstruction or

modification. Redesign is done to the hardware that doesnt fulfill the requirements set by the organization. The redesign is expensive and is therefore used as a last resort, if the problems affect the operation performance in a negative way. 7.3 No scheduled maintenance
The no scheduled maintenance is most used when the failure is evident, and does not affect safety or the environment. The components are left in operation until they are either replaced or repaired, in other words they run-to-failure.

The RCM process

The RCM method has previously been described in detail and its quite extensive. Therefore the image below can clear out some difficulties about the path the RCM analysis takes during its analyze steps. Outcome of the RCM method

The RCM method can give the following results:

Maintenance schedules Some suggestions of possible redesign items. The need for redesign is the final solution if an item cannot deliver its desired performance. The RCM method also brings some positive aspects, which are: Improved operational performance Lower maintenance costs Longer lifetime of expensive items Higher personal- and environmental safety

The RCM process

Prepared by : Moamen Sayed Taha