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Chapter 2, Section 3
1. 2. 3. Describe the distinguishing characteristics of carbohydrates Describe the important biological functions of polysaccharides Explain what distinguishes lipids from other classes of biological macromolecules Describe the unique properties, building blocks and biological roles of fats, phospholipids and steroids Distinguish proteins from the other classes of macromolecules
6. List the biological functions which proteins perform 7. Explain what determines protein conformation and why it is important 8. Define denaturation and explain how proteins may be denatured 9. Describe the characteristics that distinguish nucleic acids from the other classes of macromolecules 10. Summarize the functions of nucleic acids
11. Briefly describe the three-dimensional structure of DNA 12. Evaluate the importance of energy to living things 13. Relate energy and chemical reactions 14. Describe the role of enzymes in chemical reactions 15. Identify the effect of enzymes on food molecules
MacroMolecules • Macro = large • Molecules = 2 or more atoms covalently bonded • Usually referred to as polymers – Like a chain • Made from several repeating subunits – The repeated subunits are called monomers – Like links in a chain • 3 of the 4 macromolecules are polymers of monomers .
Making or Breaking Polymers • The chemical mechanisms that cells use to make and break polymers are similar for all classes of macromolecules. .
Making Polymers • Monomers are connected by covalent bonds via a condensation reaction or dehydration reaction. – This process requires energy and is aided by enzymes. . – One monomer provides a hydroxyl group and the other provides a hydrogen and together these form water.
guided by specific enzymes. – Hydrolysis reactions dominate the digestive process.Breaking Down Polymers • The covalent bonds connecting monomers in a polymer are disassembled by hydrolysis. . – In hydrolysis as the covalent bond is broken a hydrogen atom and hydroxyl group from a split water molecule attaches where the covalent bond used to be.
☺You will also be expected to describe the biological importance of each macromolecule . 1. describe. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids ☺ For each of these you will be expected to identify. Carbohydrates 2.Types of Macromolecules There are four of them. and differentiate between all four macromolecules. Lipids 3.
serve as fuel and carbon sources 2. the smallest carbohydrates. Sugars. have storage and structural roles .Function of Carbohydrates 1. the polymers of sugars. Polysaccharides.
– Most names for sugars end in -ose. glucose has the formula C6H12O6.H and O in a 1:2:1 ratio. . • Monosaccharides are also classified by the number of carbons in the backbone. – For example.Structure of Carbohydrates • Monosaccharides generally have molecular formulas containing C.
. • They are also building blocks for of other monomers. are a major fuel for cellular work.• Monosaccharides. particularly glucose. including those of amino acids (protein) and fatty acids (lipids). in aqueous solutions monosaccharides form rings. • While often drawn as a linear skeleton.
2. the polymers of sugars. Polysaccharides. have storage and structural roles • Polysaccharides are polymers of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides joined together (What is a polymer?) • One function of polysaccharides is energy storage – it is hydrolyzed as needed. • Other polysaccharides serve as building materials for the cell or whole organism. .
) .• Starch is a storage polysaccharide composed entirely of glucose monomers – Great big chain of glucose molecules – What would this look like? (Draw it.
• Plants can store surplus glucose in starch and withdraw it when needed for energy or carbon. • Animals that feed on plants. including chloroplasts. this sounds like an objective! .Biological Uses of Polysaccharides • Plants store starch within plastids. especially parts rich in starch. • Hey. can also access this starch to support their own metabolism.
Steroids include cholesterol and certain hormones . Fats store large amounts of energy 2.Lipids .Diverse Hydrophobic Molecules 1. Phospholipids are major components of cell membranes 3.
. • Lipids are highly diverse in form and function.Introduction • Lipids are an exception among macromolecules because they do not have polymers. – Though lipid structure is easily recognized • Lipids all have little or no affinity for water.
• A fat is constructed from two kinds of smaller molecules.1. glycerol and fatty acids. . they are large molecules assembled from smaller molecules by dehydration reactions. Fats store large amounts of energy • Although fats are not strictly polymers.
• • A fatty acid consists of a carboxyl group attached to a long carbon skeleton. often 16 to 18 carbons long. .• Glycerol consists of a three carbon skeleton with a hydroxyl group attached to each.
three fatty acids are joined to glycerol by an ester linkage. • In a fat. creating a triacylglycerol. .• The many nonpolar C-H bonds in the long hydrocarbon skeleton make fats hydrophobic.
then the molecule is a saturated fatty acid .a hydrogen at every possible position. • If there are no carbon-carbon double bonds. • Fatty acids may vary in length (number of carbons) and in the number and locations of double bonds.• The three fatty acids in a fat can be the same or different. .
but unsaturated fatty acids have a kink wherever there is a double bond . • Saturated fatty acids are straight chains.formed by the removal of hydrogen atoms from the carbon skeleton.• If there are one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. then the molecule is an unsaturated fatty acid .
– Plant and fish fats. • Straight chains allow many hydrogen bonds – A diet rich in saturated fats may contribute to cardiovascular disease (atherosclerosis) through plaque deposits. – Most animal fats – solid at room temperature. . • Fats with unsaturated fatty acids are unsaturated fats. • The kinks provided by the double bonds prevent the molecules from packing tightly together. known as oils – Liquid are room temperature.Saturated vs Unsaturated • Fats with saturated fatty acids are saturated fats.
Phospholipids are major components of cell membranes • Phospholipids have two fatty acids attached to glycerol and a phosphate group at the third position. • The “head” likes water • The “tail” hates water .2.
• The interaction of phospholipids with water is complex. . – The fatty acid tails are hydrophobic. but the phosphate group and its attachments form a hydrophilic head.
– This type of structure is called a micelle. they selfassemble into aggregates with the hydrophobic tails pointing toward the center and the hydrophilic heads on the outside. • What structure is this similar to? .• When phospholipids are added to water.
– The phospholipid bilayer forms a barrier between the cell and the external environment.• At the surface of a cell phospholipids are arranged as a bilayer. • They are the major component of cell membranes. – the hydrophilic heads are on the outside in contact with the aqueous solution and the hydrophobic tails form the core. .
3. Steroids include cholesterol and certain hormones • Steroids are lipids with a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused carbon rings. . – Different steroids are created by varying functional groups attached to the rings.
A polypeptide is a polymer of amino acids connected to a specific sequence 2.Many Structures. Many Functions 1. A protein’s function depends on its specific conformation .Proteins .
– – – – – – – structural support. each with their own structure and function. storage transport of other substances intercellular signaling movement defense against foreign substances Proteins are the main enzymes in a cell and regulate metabolism by selectively accelerating chemical reactions. • Humans have tens of thousands of different proteins.Introduction • Proteins are instrumental in about everything that an organism does. .
• Proteins are the most structurally complex molecules known. – Each type of protein has a complex threedimensional shape or conformation. • All protein polymers are constructed from the same set of 20 monomers. • A protein consists of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific conformation . • Polymers of proteins are called polypeptides. called amino acids.
A polypeptide is a polymer of amino acids connected in a specific sequence • Amino acids consist of four components attached to a central carbon. a carboxyl group. • These components include a hydrogen atom. and a side chain. • Polypeptides are made of amino acids – Amino acids CONTAIN NITROGEN (N) . the alpha carbon. an amino group.
• Attached to the backbone are the various R groups. . • Polypeptides range in size from a few monomers to thousands.• The repeated sequence (N-C-C) is the polypeptide backbone.
.• The structural properties of silk are due to beta pleated sheets. – The presence of so many hydrogen bonds makes each silk fiber stronger than steel.
Uracil (U) in RNA Guanine (G) cytosine .Nucleic Acids • – Contain genetic information Provides instructions for making polypeptides • • Each monomer is a nucleotide Nucleotides are composed of 1. 5 carbon sugar Deoxyribose ribose 2. Phosphate group Nitrogenous base Adenine (A) Thymine (T) in DNA. 3.
• Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) – Sugar is deoxyribose – Shape is a double helix • Ribonucleic acid (RNA) – Sugar is ribose – Uses a different nitrogenous base • Uracil (U) instead of thymine (T) – Shape may be a single or double helix .
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