Ceramic Tiles from Crassostrea iredalei (Oyster) Shells

Allen A. Espinosa April Mae V. Agbayani (IV-30 BSE-Chemistry) Researchers
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Objective of the Study
1. Utilize Crassostrea iredalei (oyster) shells as substitute to silicon dioxide (silica sand) in ceramic tile making.

Result
1.1 Mixtures A, B, C and E dries, hardens and forms a tile body. No cracking occurs when removing it in the plaster of paris mold. Mixture D, however, did not form a tile body because it did not harden and it did not become moldable, though it dries. Mixture Mixture Mixture Mixture Mixture A B C D E 2:3 1:1 3:2 1:0 0:1 (pulverized oyster shells : fixed mixture of ball clay feldspar and kaolin ratio of mass)

Sample of Other Mixtures D

Mixture

Result
1.2 All the groups except for B2 yields 100% after firing though it is noticeable that almost all have little damage. Group B2 broke into fragments and exhibits extensive damage. (1) bisquit firingproduct procedure (2) glazingglost firingproduct procedure (3) bisquit firingglazingglost firingproduct procedure

Other Tile Samples

Tile B2

Objective of the Study
2. Test the physical properties of the produced ceramic tiles: 2.1 Impact Strength; 2.2 Porosity

Result
2.1 In general, groups B3 and C3 are the tiles comparable with control tiles F or G in terms of impact strength.

Tile B3

Tile C3

Result
2.2 In general, tiles A2, B1 and C3 are the tiles comparable with control tile F in terms of porosity.

Tile A2

Tile B1

Tile C3

Objective of the Study
3. Compare the ceramic tile made of Crassostrea iredalei (oyster) shells to commercially available ones such as the Mariwasa Ceramic Tiles® and Floor Center Ceramic Tiles® in terms of impact strength and porosity.

Result
• C3 is the most feasible experimental tile because it is feasible in both impact strength and porosity test done.

Tile C3

Conclusion
Based on the statistical analysis, it was found out that utilizing Crassostrea iredalei (oyster) shells as substitute to silicon dioxide (silica sand) in ceramic tile making at a 60% substitution and with a bisquit firing  glazing glost firing  product firing procedure is feasible in terms of impact strength and porosity.

Recommendations
• Utilize other test for the physical properties of the best tile produced. • The use of other tile body forming methods like the dust press method or the spray drying method; • Reformulation of the proportions of the calcium carbonate, ball clay, feldspar and kaolin used.

Statement of the Problem
• Every year various solid wastes in our country have been a great problem to our government. One example is the shells of Crassostrea iredalei commonly known as oyster found near the seashores. • These shells are known fossil that contains ninety seven and a half percent (97.5%) calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

Methodology
1.1 Five (5) different mixtures were made: mixtures A, B, C, D and E.  The composition of each are: 2:3, 1:1, 3:2, 1:0, 0:1 (pulverized shells : fixed mixture of feldspar, kaolin and ball clay ratio of mass). • The composition of the fixed mixture was 3:2:1 (feldspar : kaolin : ball clay ratio of mass).  Slip Casting was used in the preparation of mixtures.

Preparation of Mixtures, Mixing and Molding

Methodology
1.2 Three firing procedures were done:
(1) bisquit firingproduct (2) glazingglost firingproduct (3) bisquit firingglazingglost firingproduct

Firing Technology

Methodology
2.1 Impact Strength Test The tiles would be placed on the floor underneath a piece of metal. A load would be dropped on the metal. This would be done on each of the tiles with increasing weight. Height = 0.68 m Load 1 = 100 g Load 2 = 200 g Load 3 = 500 g

Methodology
Rating Scale: 50 – no cracks, no damage 40 – chipped; few cracks 30 – more cracks but did not break into fragments 20 – broke into fragments 10 – extensive damage; crushed

Impact Strength Test

Methodology
2.2 Each tile was weighed using a triple beam balance to get its dry fired mass (Wm). After weighing, each tile was dipped in water instantaneously to fill the open pores then it was weighed again to get its unsaturated mass (Wd). After weighing, the tiles were submerged in water for five (5) hours and were weighed again to get its saturated mass (Wmm). To get the percent apparent porosity (%Pa), the values gathered from weighing was then substituted to the equation: % Pa=Wm–Wd/Wm–Wmm x100

Porosity Test

Methodology
• One-way ANOVA was used in comparing the physical properties like impact strength and porosity of the produced tiles with that of the commercial tiles

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