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WHAT IS RESEARCH ? “Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulated hypothesis.” - Clifford Woody.
WHAT IS RESEARCH ? “The manipulation of things, concepts and symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art.” - D. Slesinger and M.Stephenson “Search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solutions to a problem is research” - C.R.Kothari
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Uncomfortable with uncertainness Sustainable growth of business Academic and career excellence
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Objectives of Research √ Disciplined inquiry for taking decision in management dilemma related to functional areas like marketing, HR, Finance, System, Operations etc. √ To understand formulative or descriptive characteristics of the elements involved in decision making, frequency of their
occurrence and associative or causal relationship amongst
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To know characteristics of a situation To know frequency and association between two or more entities or events To know the causal relationship between two or more entities or events 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 5 .RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Objectives of Research To know and understand a phenomenon.
√ Basis for governmental policies. √ Solving operational and planning problems of business and industry. consultants etc. logical and inductive thinking. √ Seeking answers to social problems. √ Useful for academicians. 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 6 .RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Utility of research : √ Inculcation of scientific.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY TYPES OF RESEARCH Descriptive V/s Analytical Descriptive research. Descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship.. what. describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who. when and how. where one variable affects another.. also known as statistical research. 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 7 . In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied. where.
Further it will also try to establish the cause for this phenomenon. the analytical research will find the pattern as more students from Engineering and commerce background join the programme. Analytical research answers the Question why. if the descriptive research gives the educational background of students joining PGDM. For example.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY TYPES OF RESEARCH Descriptive V/s Analytical Analytical research identifies patterns in the description of the population and tries to find out the logical relationship or causal relationship in the patterns. 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 8 .
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY TYPES OF RESEARCH Fundamental V/s Applied Fundamental research (also called basic or pure research) has as its primary objective the advancement of knowledge and the theoretical understanding of the relations among variables. basic research provides the foundation for further. Through theory generation. Maslow’s theory or McGregor’s theory is a fundamental research. It is exploratory and often driven by the researcher’s curiosity. often applied research. It is conducted without a practical end in mind. 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 9 . interest or hunch.
It can be exploratory but often it is descriptive. practical questions. It is almost always done on the basis of basic research.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY TYPES OF RESEARCH Fundamental V/s Applied Applied research is done to solve specific. Theory of elasticity of demand to price is a basic research which can be applied to find out what price should be fixed for a particular product to get desired market share is an applied research. 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 10 . Its primary aim is not to gain knowledge for its own sake.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY TYPES OF RESEARCH Exploratory V/s Diagnostic Exploratory research is conducted into an issue or problem where there are few or no earlier studies to refer to. The focus is on gaining insights and familiarity for later investigation. increase in suicides by students etc. 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 11 . Diagnostic research is aimed at finding out the root cause of a problem such as falling sales.
intelligence.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY TYPES OF RESEARCH Conceptual V/s Empirical Conceptual Research aims at bringing clarity in concepts to form the basis for further research. Concepts like income. 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 12 . leadership need research to find out common understanding by respondents.
In scientific use the term empirical refers to the gathering of data using only evidence that is observable by the senses or in some cases using calibrated scientific instruments. 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 13 .RESEARCH METHODOLOGY TYPES OF RESEARCH Conceptual V/s Empirical Empiricism refers to a theory of knowledge in philosophy which adheres to the principle that knowledge arises from experience and evidence gathered specifically using the senses.
Qualitative approach Subjective assessment of attitudes. 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 14 . 2.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH APPROACHES Quantitative approach (Collection of quantitative data and analysis) 1. 3. opinions and behaviour. Inferential – To form a database for inferences Experimental – Manipulation of variable in controlled environment Simulation – Operation of numerical model which represents the structure of a dynamic process.
Formulate hypotheses – What is the likely out come ? or researcher’s learned opinion ? 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 15 . Review previous research finding: -. Review concepts/theory.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Process Steps in research : 1.What research work has been done so far ? 3. Define research problem – What is to be found out ? 2.
Report – how to present the findings.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Process Steps in research : 4. Data collection – What is the response to the questions ? 6. Research design – What information is needed ? Who will give the information ? from how many to collect the information ? how to collect and analyse the information ? 5. conclusions and suggestions ? 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 16 . Data analysis and interpretation – Do the hypotheses test positive or otherwise ? 7.
struggles to state the problem – asks questions. 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 17 . doubt. suspicion. gathers facts and moves from an emotional to an intellectual confrontation with the problem. contemplates existing knowledge.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The Research Process (As described by Cooper & Schindler) The researcher encounters a curiosity. Proposes hypothesis to explain the facts that are believed to be logically related to the problem. or obstacle.
5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 18 . Formulates several rival hypotheses.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The Research Process (As described by Cooper & Schindler) The researcher Deducts outcome or consequences of the hypothesis – attempts to discover what happens if the results are in the opposite direction of that predicted or if the results support the expectations.
modifying it according to the strength of the evidence. Feeds information back into the original problem. each of which selectively excludes one or more hypotheses.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The Research Process (As described by Cooper & Schindler) The researcher Devises and conducts a crucial empirical test with various possible outcomes. 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 19 . Draws a conclusion (an inductive inference) based on acceptance or rejection of the hypotheses.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN RESEARCH Reliability : The accuracy and precision of a measurement procedure. 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 20 . Validity : Extent to which a test measures what we actually want to measure.
Assume that there is no change in the underlying conditions between the two separate measurements.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY METHODS FOR RELIABILITY ESTIMATES Test – retest : 1. 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 21 . Compute the correlation between the two separate measurements 3. Implement the measuring instrument at two separate times for each subject 2.
5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 22 .RESEARCH METHODOLOGY METHODS FOR RELIABILITY ESTIMATES Internal consistency : Two sets of questions aimed at measuring the same concept are administered to the same respondent and correlation is found out.
income of a family.Content Validity : Extent to which the measuring instrument provides adequate coverage of the investigative questions guiding the study.Construct Validity : Extent to which the scales of measurement represent the actual opinions.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY METHODS FOR VALIDITY ESTIMATES 1.Criterion validity : Extent to which each criteria can be correctly measured.g. E. 3. ( 1 to 10 scale or very good to very poor scale) 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 23 . 2.
5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 24 .al.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH DESIGN “Research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to research purpose with economy in procedure” .Claire Selltiz et.
5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 25 .RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Importance of proper research design : Without a proper research design the purpose or the objective of the research will not be served. The reliability of the research finding depends greatly on the research design.
What is our problem ? 2. What outcome is expected ? 4.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY STEPS IN RESEARCH DESIGN 1. Who will give this information? 5. How will the conclusions be reported ? 10. How shall the information be collected? 7. From how many shall the information be collected ? 6. How will the information be analyzed ? 9. What are the constraints of time and money? 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 26 . What information will help in answering our problem ? 3. Who will collect the information ? 8.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY FEATURES OF A GOOD RESEARCH DESIGN Clear objective Relevant information gathering Well formulated hypotheses Representative sample profile and size Appropriate research instruments Appropriate investigators Appropriate tools for data analysis User oriented reporting Optimum utilization of available resources 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 27 .
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH DESIGN & TYPES OF RESEARCH Type of research Exploratory Or Formulative Descriptive Or diagnostic Characteristics of design Only formulating problem or working hypothesis Flexible More literature survey and experience survey Need valid and reliable data Quantitative/qualitative analysis important Hypothesis testing Experimental intervention research Cause-effect study 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 28 .
The usual intervention is to manipulate some variable in setting and observe how it affects the participants or subjects being studied. 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 29 . (People or physical entities) The researcher manipulates the independent or explanatory variable and then observes whether the hypothesized dependent variable is affected by the intervention.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN An experiment is a study involving intervention by the researcher beyond that required for measurement.
Independent variable is also known as explanatory variable or predictor variable. Dependent variable is also known as criterion variable. 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 30 . thereby causing an effect on the dependent variable. DEPENDENT VARIABLE (DV) A measured predicted or otherwise monitored variable expected to be affected by manipulation of an independent variable.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (IV) The variable manipulated by the researcher.
REPLICATION The process of repeating an experiment with different participant groups. and conditions to determine the average effect of the independent variable across people.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN CONTROL GROUP A group that is measured but not exposed to experimental treatment. situations and times. FIELD EXPERIMENTATION A study of the dependent variable in actual environmental conditions 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS 31 .
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY SAMPLE DESIGN A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. It refers to the technique or procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting items for the sample 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS MKI/RM/PU 32 32 .
Cost considerations Sampling procedure – Technique of collecting sample. 5. 3. 2. 7. Social Source list – Sampling frame Size of sample – Optimal in number. precision and cost. STEPS IN SAMPLE DESIGN Type of Universe – Finite and infinite Sampling unit – geographic. 5/12/2013 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS MKI/RM/PU 33 33 . 4.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1. Parameters of interest – answering relevant questions Budgetary constraints . 6.
abnormal behaviour under observation etc. Sampling error : random variation in the sample estimate around the true population parameters. non-respondents. 5/12/2013 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS MKI/RM/PU 34 34 . 2. Systematic bias : Error in sampling procedure due to inappropriate sampling frame.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY SAMPLING PROCEDURE The sampling procedure shall avoid 1. Defective measuring device.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY SAMPLING DESIGN Sample Size : Too small sample size may not be representative and hence generalization may not be possible. Optimum size can be decided by considering the following factors. √ Nature of Universe – Homogenous or heterogeneous ? (Dispersion) √ Number of classes – Groups and subgroups in the universe. Too large sample size will lead to high cost and wastage of resources. 5/12/2013 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS MKI/RM/PU 35 35 .
) √ Nature of study – intense and continuous or general survey ? √ Type of sampling – random sampling or non-probability sampling ? √ Accuracy and confidence level – High or low ? √ Availability of finance – low or high ? √ Time frame – short or long ? √ Probability of no response or wasted responses – High or low ? 5/12/2013 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS MKI/RM/PU 36 36 .RESEARCH METHODOLOGY SAMPLING DESIGN Sample Size : (Cont.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD SAMPLE DESIGN True representation of the population/universe Small sampling error Viable within the given budget Minimum systemic bias 5/12/2013 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS MKI/RM/PU 37 37 .
Tippett) Complex random sampling like Systematic. MKI/RM/FMS MKI/RM/PU Non.Probability sampling Convenience sampling Restricted sampling Purposive sampling like quota or judgment sampling 5/12/2013 5/12/2013 38 38 .RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RANDOM SAMPLING DESIGN Selection technique Unrestricted sampling Probability sampling Simple random sampling (Random number tables by Fisher. Yates. stratified. Clustered etc.
11th. 5/12/2013 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS MKI/RM/PU 39 39 . then every 10th member is selected as 1st. Stratified Random sampling Cluster Sampling If the population is not a homogenous group. then 100 samples will be selected from each cluster. 31st and so on till 91st member. 21st. the area is divided into smaller non-overlapping areas and equal samples are selected from each subarea randomly. If the area is divided in ten clusters and the total sample size is 1000. then total population is divided into strata with homogenous members and proportionate sample is selected.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY COMPLEX RANDOM SAMPLING DESIGN Systematic Random sampling Suppose if 10 % sampling out of 1000 population size is to be taken. When the total area of interest is large.
11th. Tippett are used for selection of sample. then every 10th member is selected as 1st. 31st and so on till 91st member.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Probability sample: Unrestricted Simple random sampling – Every item of the universe has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample. Restricted complex random sampling ■ Systematic Random sampling – Suppose if 10 % sampling out of 1000 population size is to be taken. 5/12/2013 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS MKI/RM/PU 40 40 . 21st. Random number tables by Fisher. Yates.
If the area is divided in ten clusters and the total sample size is 1000. then total population is divided into strata with homogenous members and proportionate sample is selected. then 100 samples will be selected from each cluster. the area is divided into smaller non-overlapping areas and equal samples are selected from each subarea randomly. ■ Cluster Sampling .When the total area of interest is large. 5/12/2013 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS MKI/RM/PU 41 41 .RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Probability sample: ■ Stratified Random sampling – If the population is not a homogenous group.
5/12/2013 5/12/2013 MKI/RM/FMS MKI/RM/PU 42 42 . Restricted sampling – Purposive sampling like quota or judgment sampling.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Non-probability sample: Unrestricted sampling – Convenience sampling.