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PASSIVE VOICE

Active: S+V+O

Passive: S + Be + PP(V3ed) + by + O (tense) EX: My father planted this tree last year. This tree was planted by my father last year.

TABLE OF ENGLISH TENSES IN PASSIVE VOICE


The Simple Present Tense Active: S + V(s/es) + O

Passive: S + am/is/are + PP + by + O EX: He reads books every day.


Books are read (by him) every day.

TABLE OF ENGLISH TENSES IN PASSIVE VOICE

The Present Continuous Tense

Active: S + am/is/are + V-ing + O Passive: S + am/is/are + being +PP + by + O

EX: He is writing a novel at the moment.


A novel is being written (by him) at the moment.

TABLE OF ENGLISH TENSES IN PASSIVE VOICE

The Present Perfect Tense

Active: S + Has/Have + V3ed + O Passive: S + has/have + been +PP + by + O

EX: He has just finished a novel. A novel has just been finished (by him).

TABLE OF ENGLISH TENSES IN PASSIVE VOICE

The Simple Past Tense

Active: S + V2ed + O

Passive: S + was/were + PP + by + O

EX: He gave Tom a book. A book was given to Tom (by him). Tom was given a book (by him).

TABLE OF ENGLISH TENSES IN PASSIVE VOICE


The Past Continuous Tense Active: S + was/were + V-ing + O

Passive: S + was/were + being + PP + by + O

EX: He was writing a letter at 8.00 yesterday. A letter was being written (by him).

TABLE OF ENGLISH TENSES IN PASSIVE VOICE

The Past Perfect Tense

Active: S + had + V3ed + O Passive: S + had + been + PP + by + O


EX: He had finished his homework before 8.00 yesterday. His homework had been finished (by him) before 8.00 yesterday.

TABLE OF ENGLISH TENSES IN PASSIVE VOICE

The Simple Future Tense

Active: S + will/shall + V + O

Passive: S + will/shall + be + PP + by + O

EX: He will finish the homework. The homework will be finished.

TABLE OF ENGLISH TENSES IN PASSIVE VOICE

The Future Continuous Tense

Active: S + will/shall + be + V-ing + O

Passive: S + will/shall + be + being + PP + by + O

EX: Tom will be cooking lunch at 10.00 tomorrow. Lunch will be being cooked by Tom at 10.00 tomorrow.

TABLE OF ENGLISH TENSES IN PASSIVE VOICE

The Future Perfect Tense

Active: S + will/shall + have + V3ed + O

Passive: S + will/shall + have + been + PP + by + O

EX: By the end of next week, he will have

written 10 letters to her. By the end of next week, 10 letters will have been written to her.

Modal Verbs can be used in either the present or past forms. Active: S + MV (not) + V + O

MODAL VERBS (MV) IN PASSIVE VOICE

Passive: S + MV (not) + Be + PP + by + O EX: We cant solve this problem.

This problem cant be solved.

PASSIVE VOICE WITH CAUSATIVE FORM


Active: S + Has/Have + O1 + V (BI)+ O2 S + Get + O1 + V (to-infinitive) + O2

Passive: S + Has/Have/Get + O2 + PP EX: My father had Tom wash his car. My father had his car washed by Tom

OTHER INFINITIVE COMBINATIONS IN PASSIVE VOICE


Verbs of liking/loving/wanting/wishing + Object + infinitive form their passive with the passive infinitive. Active: S + V + O1 + to-infinitive + O2 Passive: S + V + O + To Be + PP EX: He wants someone to take photographs. He wants photographs to be taken.

Such verbs as have/let/make/hear/see/watch/feel/ observe are used in the following passive structure:

Active: S + V + O + V (BI) Passive: S + To Be + PP + to-Infinitive EX: The gravity makes things drop down.
Things are made to drop down by the gravity. Note: The verb following let does not bear to in the passive sentence.

OTHER INFINITIVE COMBINATIONS IN PASSIVE VOICE


With advise/beg/order/recommend/urge + Indirect Object + Infinitive + Object, we have two ways of making the passive voice. <1>Active: S + V + O1 + to-infinitive + O2 Passive: S + To Be + PP + to-infinitive + O2 EX: He urged the Council to reduce the tax. The Council was urged to reduce the tax.

OTHER INFINITIVE COMBINATIONS IN PASSIVE VOICE


With advise/beg/order/recommend/urge + Indirect Object + infinitive + Object, we have two ways of making the passive voice. <2>Active: S + V + O1 + to-infinitive + O2 Passive: S1 + V + that + S2 + should be + PP EX: He urged the Council to reduce the tax. He urged that the tax should be reduced.

OTHER INFINITIVE COMBINATIONS AFTER THE PASSIVE VERB


After acknowledge/assume/believe/claim/ consider /estimate/feel/find/know/report/ say/think /understand , we use the infinitive construction. Simple Infinitive: if the time in the infinitive passive is the same as that of the main active verb.

<1>Active: S1 + V1 + that + S2 + V2 + (O) Passive: It + To Be + PP + that + S2 + V2 + (O) EX: People said that he was jealous of her. It was said that he was jealous of her.

<2>Active: S1 + V1 + that + S2 + V2 + (O) Passive: S+ To Be + PP + to + V+ (O) EX: People said that he was jealous of her. He was said to be jealous of her.

Perfect Infinitive: if the time in the infinitive

passive is earlier than that of the main active verb. <1>Active: S1 + V1 + that + S2 + V2 + (O)

Passive: It + To Be + PP + that + S2 + V2 + (O) EX: People say that he was jealous of her. It is said that he was jealous of her.

<2>Active: S1 + V1 + that + S2 + V2 + (O)


Passive: S+ To Be + PP + to have + PP + (O) EX: People say that he was jealous of her. He is said to have been jealous of her.

OTHER GERUND COMBINATIONS IN PASSIVE VOICE


With advise/insist/propose/recommend /suggest + Gerund + Object Active: S + V + V-ing + O Passive: S + V + that + S + should be + PP EX: He recommended using bullet-proof glass. He recommended that bullet-proof glass should be used.

OTHER GERUND COMBINATIONS IN PASSIVE VOICE


Active: S + V + O + V-ing Passive: S + V + Being + PP + by + O EX: I remembered my father taking me to the zoo. I remember being taken to the zoo by my father.

Active: S + V + To-inf + O
Passive: S + V + To Be + PP + by + O EX: She started to learn English 5 years ago. English started to be learnt 5 years ago. Active: S + V + V-ing + O Passive: S + V + Being + PP + by + O EX: She started learning English 5 years ago. English started being learnt 5 years ago.